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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21923, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758327

ABSTRACT

We developed a tool to guide decision-making for early triage of COVID-19 patients based on a predicted prognosis, using a Korean national cohort of 5,596 patients, and validated the developed tool with an external cohort of 445 patients treated in a single institution. Predictors chosen for our model were older age, male sex, subjective fever, dyspnea, altered consciousness, temperature ≥ 37.5 °C, heart rate ≥ 100 bpm, systolic blood pressure ≥ 160 mmHg, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, chronic kidney disease, cancer, dementia, anemia, leukocytosis, lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. In the external validation, when age, sex, symptoms, and underlying disease were used as predictors, the AUC used as an evaluation metric for our model's performance was 0.850 in predicting whether a patient will require at least oxygen therapy and 0.833 in predicting whether a patient will need critical care or die from COVID-19. The AUCs improved to 0.871 and 0.864, respectively, when additional information on vital signs and blood test results were also used. In contrast, the protocols currently recommended in Korea showed AUCs less than 0.75. An application for calculating the prognostic score in COVID-19 patients based on the results of this study is presented on our website ( https://nhimc.shinyapps.io/ih-psc/ ), where the results of the validation ongoing in our institution are periodically updated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Triage
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305542

ABSTRACT

We developed a tool for early triage of a COVID-19 patient based on a predicted prognosis, using a Korean national cohort of 5,596 patients. Predictors chosen for our model were older age, male sex, subjective fever, dyspnea, altered consciousness, temperature ≥ 37.5°C, heart rate ≥ 100 bpm, systolic blood pressure ≥ 160 mmHg, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, chronic kidney disease, cancer, dementia, anemia, leukocytosis, lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Our model was better in predicting prognosis than protocols that are not based on data. The AUC of our model utilizing all the selected predictors was 0.907 in predicting whether a patient will require at least oxygen therapy and 0.927 in predicting whether a patient will need critical care or die from COVID-19. Even with age, sex, and symptoms alone used as predictors, AUCs were ≥ 0.88. In contrast, the protocols currently recommended in Korea showed AUCs less than 0.75.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305541

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of COVID-19 has resulted in the shortage of medical resources, which necessitates accurate prognosis prediction to triage patients effectively. This study used the nationwide cohort of South Korea to develop a machine learning model to predict prognosis based on sociodemographic and medical information. Of 10,237 COVID-19 patients, 228 (2.2%) died, 7,772 (75.9%) recovered, and 2,237 (21.9%) were still in isolation or being treated at the last follow-up (April 16, 2020). The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that age > 70, male sex, moderate or severe disability, the presence of symptoms, nursing home residence, and comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic lung disease, or asthma were significantly associated with increased risk of mortality ( p ≤ 0.047). For machine learning, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), linear support vector machine (SVM), SVM with radial basis function kernel, random forest (RF), and k-nearest neighbors were tested. In prediction of mortality, LASSO and linear SVM demonstrated high sensitivities (90.7% [95% confidence interval: 83.3, 97.3] and 92.0% [85.9, 98.1], respectively) and specificities (91.4% [90.3, 92.5] and 91.8%, [90.7, 92.9], respectively) while maintaining high specificities >90%, as well as high area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (0.963 [0.946, 0.979] and 0.962 [0.945, 0.979], respectively). The most significant predictors for LASSO included old age and preexisting DM or cancer;for RF they were old age, infection route (cluster infection or infection from personal contact), and underlying hypertension. The proposed prediction model may be helpful for the quick triage of patients without having to wait for the results of additional tests such as laboratory or radiologic studies, during a pandemic when limited medical resources must be wisely allocated without hesitation.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18716, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894420

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of COVID-19 has resulted in the shortage of medical resources, which necessitates accurate prognosis prediction to triage patients effectively. This study used the nationwide cohort of South Korea to develop a machine learning model to predict prognosis based on sociodemographic and medical information. Of 10,237 COVID-19 patients, 228 (2.2%) died, 7772 (75.9%) recovered, and 2237 (21.9%) were still in isolation or being treated at the last follow-up (April 16, 2020). The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that age > 70, male sex, moderate or severe disability, the presence of symptoms, nursing home residence, and comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic lung disease, or asthma were significantly associated with increased risk of mortality (p ≤ 0.047). For machine learning, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), linear support vector machine (SVM), SVM with radial basis function kernel, random forest (RF), and k-nearest neighbors were tested. In prediction of mortality, LASSO and linear SVM demonstrated high sensitivities (90.7% [95% confidence interval: 83.3, 97.3] and 92.0% [85.9, 98.1], respectively) and specificities (91.4% [90.3, 92.5] and 91.8%, [90.7, 92.9], respectively) while maintaining high specificities > 90%, as well as high area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (0.963 [0.946, 0.979] and 0.962 [0.945, 0.979], respectively). The most significant predictors for LASSO included old age and preexisting DM or cancer; for RF they were old age, infection route (cluster infection or infection from personal contact), and underlying hypertension. The proposed prediction model may be helpful for the quick triage of patients without having to wait for the results of additional tests such as laboratory or radiologic studies, during a pandemic when limited medical resources must be wisely allocated without hesitation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , Republic of Korea
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