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1.
MedComm (2020) ; 3(2): e130, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782644

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, particularly those with multiple mutations in receptor-binding domain (RBD), pose a critical challenge to the efficacy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and therapeutic neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Omicron sublineages BA.1, BA.2, BA.3, as well as the recent emergence of C.1.2, B.1.630, B.1.640.1, and B.1.640.2, have multiple mutations in RBD and may lead to severe neutralizing antibody evasion. It is urgent to evaluate the antigenic change of the above seven variants against mAbs and sera from guinea pigs immunized with variants of concern (VOCs) (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Omicron) and variants of interest (VOIs) (Lambda, Mu) immunogens. Only seven out of the 24 mAbs showed no reduction in neutralizing activity against BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3. However, among these seven mAbs, the neutralization activity of XGv337 and XGv338 against C.1.2, B.1.630, B.1.640.1, and B.1.640.2 were decreased. Therefore, only five neutralizing mAbs showed no significant change against these seven variants. Using VOCs and VOIs as immunogens, we found that the antigenicity of variants could be divided into three clusters, and each cluster showed similar antigenicity to different immunogens. Among them, D614G, B.1.640.1, and B.1.630 formed a cluster, C.1.2 and B.1.640.2 formed a cluster, and BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3 formed a cluster.

2.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 94(5):i-i, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1750403

ABSTRACT

Front Cover Caption: The cover image is based on the Research Article Aggregation of high-frequency RBD mutations of SARS-CoV-2 with three VOCs did not cause significant antigenic drift by Tao Li et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27596.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 18, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639142

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants are the most serious problem for COVID-19 prophylaxis and treatment. To determine whether the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain should be updated following variant emergence like seasonal flu vaccine, the changed degree on antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants and H3N2 flu vaccine strains was compared. The neutralization activities of Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants' spike protein-immunized sera were analysed against the eight current epidemic variants and 20 possible variants combining the top 10 prevalent RBD mutations based on the Delta variant, which were constructed using pseudotyped viruses. Meanwhile, the neutralization activities of convalescent sera and current inactivated and recombinant protein vaccine-elicited sera were also examined against all possible Delta variants. Eight HA protein-expressing DNAs elicited-animal sera were also tested against eight pseudotyped viruses of H3N2 flu vaccine strains from 2011-2019. Our results indicate that the antigenicity changes of possible Delta variants were mostly within four folds, whereas the antigenicity changes among different H3N2 vaccine strains were approximately 10-100-fold. Structural analysis of the antigenic characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 and H3N2 mutations supports the neutralization results. This study indicates that the antigenicity changes of the current SARS-CoV-2 may not be sufficient to require replacement of the current vaccine strain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Substitution , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/metabolism , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2108-2125, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627779

ABSTRACT

Variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to emerge, posing great challenges in outbreak prevention and control. It is important to understand in advance the impact of possible variants of concern (VOCs) on infectivity and antigenicity. Here, we constructed one or more of the 15 high-frequency naturally occurring amino acid changes in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma variants. A single mutant of A520S, V367F, and S494P in the above three VOCs enhanced infectivity in ACE2-overexpressing 293T cells of different species, LLC-MK2 and Vero cells. Aggregation of multiple RBD mutations significantly reduces the infectivity of the possible three VOCs. Regarding neutralization, it is noteworthy that E484K, N501Y, K417N, and N439K predispose to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) protection failure in the 15 high-frequency mutations. Most importantly, almost all possible VOCs (single RBD mutation or aggregation of multiple mutations) showed no more than a fourfold decrease in neutralizing activity with convalescent sera, vaccine sera, and immune sera of guinea pigs with different immunogens, and no significant antigenic drift was formed. In conclusion, our pseudovirus results could reduce the concern that the aggregation of multiple high-frequency mutations in the RBD of the spike protein of the three VOCs would lead to severe antigenic drift, and this would provide value for vaccine development strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antigenic Drift and Shift , COVID-19/therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vero Cells
5.
Vaccine ; 39(41): 6050-6056, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386708

ABSTRACT

The development of an effective vaccine to control the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus- 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of utmost importance. In this study, a synthetic DNA-based vaccine candidate, known as pSV10-SARS-CoV-2, expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was designed and tested in 39 BALB/c mice with BC01, an adjuvant derived from unmethylated CpG motif-containing DNA fragments from the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin genome. Mice vaccinated with pSV10-SARS-CoV-2 with BC01 produced early neutralizing antibodies and developed stronger humoral and cellular immune responses compared to mice that received the DNA vaccine only. Moreover, sera from mice vaccinated with pSV10-SARS-CoV-2 with BC01 can neutralize certain variants, including 614G, 614G + 472 V, 452R, 483A, 501Y.V2, and B.1.1.7. The results of this study demonstrate that the addition of BC01 to a DNA-vaccine for COVID-19 could elicit more effective neutralizing antibody titers for disease prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines, DNA , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , DNA , Genomics , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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