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"Journal of Southeast Asian Economies, suppl Special Issue on ""Digital Transformation in Southeast Asia""" ; 40(1):96-126, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2312507


Consumption and production of digital goods and services have increased in Indonesia for the past ten years. A fast-growing e-commerce sector and an increase in digital payments supported the strong growth of the digital economy. Although Internet and digital transactions emerged in the late 1980s, the regulatory framework governing digital activities was only introduced in 2008 with the enactment of the Law on Electronic Information and Transactions. The government of Indonesia has relaxed foreign capital restrictions and provided fiscal incentives for digital businesses. Indonesia has also made commitments related to digital business in recent trade agreements in terms of the mutual recognition of consumer protection and cross-border data transfer. To encourage the use of ICT in public service, Indonesia introduced the 100 Smart City programme and has begun the implementation of electronic-based public service and operation (e-government). The government accelerated digital transformation during the COVID-19 pandemic by increasing the budget allocations for ICT in 2020 and 2021. To further accelerate digital transformation, the government needs to focus on digital literacy, nationwide integrated infrastructure, regulatory and institutional mechanisms and the innovation ecosystem.

Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 3898-3906, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455124


The development of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines as well as their delivery to people's arms are the best hope for ending the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the implementation of vaccination varies greatly across countries, with the developing countries lagging behind. This study investigates Indonesia's vaccination experiences, challenges, and acceleration over the course of implementation period. This study provides simulations to estimate the vaccination rate using time-series forecasting machine learning. We use Administrative data and Survey results in our analysis. Our findings suggest limited vaccine availability had caused low-coverage vaccination implementation in the early stage of vaccination implementation period. However, following the increased availability of vaccine, the vaccination rate accelerates up to 600% times. The government of Indonesia utilized strategic public places, public and private offices, and engaging private sectors in the phase two implementation to accelerate the vaccination implementation. Indonesia might reach 63.1 million individuals vaccinated at the end of March 2022, or 35% of the targeted population with up to April 2021 vaccination rate. To accelerate, government introduced a number of new strategies including door-to-door persuasion through neighborhood association (RT), educating individuals, and providing transportation from their home to the vaccination facility. We expect new strategies could further improve vaccination speed by around 1.4 million to 3.5 million individuals per day.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Indonesia , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination