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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1016, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic as a public health crisis has led to a significant increase in mental health difficulties. Smoking is strongly associated with mental health conditions, which is why the pandemic might have influenced the otherwise decline in smoking rates. Persons belonging to socioeconomically disadvantaged groups may be particularly affected, both because the pandemic has exacerbated existing social inequalities and because this group was more likely to smoke before the pandemic. We examined smoking prevalence in a French cohort study, focusing on differences between educational attainment. In addition, we examined the association between interpersonal changes in tobacco consumption and educational level from 2018 to 2021. METHODS: Using four assessments of smoking status available from 2009 to 2021, we estimated smoking prevalence over time, stratified by highest educational level in the TEMPO cohort and the difference was tested using chi2 test. We studied the association between interpersonal change in smoking status between 2018 and 2021 and educational attainment among 148 smokers, using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence was higher among those with low education. The difference between the two groups increased from 2020 to 2021 (4.8-9.4%, p < 0.001). Smokers with high educational level were more likely to decrease their tobacco consumption from 2018 to 2021 compared to low educated smokers (aOR = 2.72 [1.26;5.89]). CONCLUSION: Current findings showed a widening of the social inequality gap in relation to smoking rates, underscoring the increased vulnerability of persons with low educational level to smoking and the likely inadequate focus on social inequalities in relation to tobacco control policies during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Cohort Studies , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Educational Status , Smoking/epidemiology , Prevalence
2.
SSM Popul Health ; 20: 101285, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120105

ABSTRACT

•Symptoms of anxiety/depression were found in 28.8% of the participants at least once.•Unemployment and financial difficulties were associated with anxiety/depression.•Targeted mental health support could lessen mental health impact.

3.
PLoS ONE Vol 16(7), 2021, ArtID e0255158 ; 16(7), 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1790373

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic lead to high levels of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Consequences of this outbreak and possible associated infection are an increase in mental health disorders and an increased likelihood of internalizing problems, particularly depression. However, to date few studies have tested this hypothesis while taking into account individuals' preexisting mental health difficulties. Methods: We used longitudinal data collected among 729 persons in the context of the French TEMPO cohort between March and June 2020 (7 waves of data collection). COVID-19-like symptoms as well as anxiety/depression (assessed by the Adult Self Report), were reported at each wave of data collection. To study the relationship between COVID-19-like symptoms and anxiety/depression, we used generalized estimation equation (GEE) models controlled for socio-demographic and health-related characteristics, including anxiety/depression prior to 2020. Results: Overall, 27.2% of study participants reported anxiety/depression during lockdown. 17.1% of participants reported COVID-19-like symptoms during the course of follow-up, 7.3% after the beginning of lockdown, with an average number of 2.7 symptoms, and 3.6% reported respiratory distress. In multivariate analyses, nearly all the considered indicators of COVID-19-like symptoms were associated with higher odds of symptoms of anxiety/depression (symptoms Yes/No: OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.08-2.55;symptoms after the beginning of lockdown: OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.03-3.52;number of symptoms: OR for each additional symptom = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02-1.39. This relationship exists after taking into account prior symptoms of anxiety/depression, which are associated with a 5-fold increased likelihood of psychological distress. And this impact is stronger among men than women. Conclusions: Our study shows higher risk of anxiety/depression among persons who experienced COVID-19-like symptoms, even after accounting for prior mental health difficulties. COVID-19 infection could have both a direct and indirect impact on the occurrence of psychological difficulties, and this association should be studied in greater detail. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 381, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing restrictions where implemented in France, which could have led to social isolation. This is expected to have affected the mental health situation, including increasing risk of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the general population. Persons with prior mental health difficulties could be an especially vulnerable group, however, few studies have tested this empirically considering preexisting mental health difficulties. We examine the association between preexisting symptoms of anxiety/depression and anxiety/depression during lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in a longitudinal community sample. METHODS: A longitudinal follow-up during lockdown (data collection March-June 2020) was implemented among participants of the TEMPO cohort. Prior knowledge of anxiety/depression was included from prior waves of data collection. Generalized estimation equations models were used to estimate the association between preexisting symptoms of anxiety/depression and symptoms of anxiety/depression during lockdown among 662 mid-aged individuals. RESULTS: Individuals with symptoms of anxiety/depression measured prior to lockdown had 6.73 higher odds [95% CI = 4.45-10.17] of symptoms of anxiety/depression during lockdown. Additionally, the likelihood of symptoms of anxiety/depression during lockdown was elevated among women (OR = 2.07 [95% CI = 1.32-3.25]), subjects with low household income (OR = 2.28 [1.29-4.01]) and persons who reported being lonely (OR = 3.94 [95% CI = 2.47-6.28]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study underlines the role of preexisting symptoms of anxiety/depression as a vulnerability factor of anxiety/depression during lockdown. Interventions focusing on individuals with mental health difficulties as well as people feeling lonely should be considered, to reduce the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cyclic N-Oxides , Depression/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255158, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic lead to high levels of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Consequences of this outbreak and possible associated infection are an increase in mental health disorders and an increased likelihood of internalizing problems, particularly depression. However, to date few studies have tested this hypothesis while taking into account individuals' preexisting mental health difficulties. METHODS: We used longitudinal data collected among 729 persons in the context of the French TEMPO cohort between March and June 2020 (7 waves of data collection). COVID-19-like symptoms as well as anxiety/depression (assessed by the Adult Self Report), were reported at each wave of data collection. To study the relationship between COVID-19-like symptoms and anxiety/depression, we used generalized estimation equation (GEE) models controlled for socio-demographic and health-related characteristics, including anxiety/depression prior to 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 27.2% of study participants reported anxiety/depression during lockdown. 17.1% of participants reported COVID-19-like symptoms during the course of follow-up, 7.3% after the beginning of lockdown, with an average number of 2.7 symptoms, and 3.6% reported respiratory distress. In multivariate analyses, nearly all the considered indicators of COVID-19-like symptoms were associated with higher odds of symptoms of anxiety/depression (symptoms Yes/No: OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.08-2.55; symptoms after the beginning of lockdown: OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.03-3.52; number of symptoms: OR for each additional symptom = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02-1.39. This relationship exists after taking into account prior symptoms of anxiety/depression, which are associated with a 5-fold increased likelihood of psychological distress. And this impact is stronger among men than women. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows higher risk of anxiety/depression among persons who experienced COVID-19-like symptoms, even after accounting for prior mental health difficulties. COVID-19 infection could have both a direct and indirect impact on the occurrence of psychological difficulties, and this association should be studied in greater detail.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Factors , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
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