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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(41): 1301-1305, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067366

ABSTRACT

Social and educational disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic have exacerbated concerns about adolescents' mental health and suicidal behavior. Data from the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (ABES) indicate that 37.1% of U.S. high school students reported poor mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, with 19.9% considering and 9.0% attempting suicide in the preceding year (1). Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)* are associated with poor mental health and suicidal behaviors (2,3), and high prevalence of some ACEs have been documented during the pandemic (4). ACEs are preventable, potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood (ages 0-17 years) such as neglect, experiencing or witnessing violence, or having a family member attempt or die by suicide. Also included are aspects of a child's environment that can undermine their sense of safety, stability, and bonding. Associations between ACEs occurring during the pandemic and mental health or suicidal behaviors among U.S. high school students were examined using ABES data. Experience of one to two ACEs was associated with poorer mental health and increased suicidal behaviors, and these deleterious outcomes increased with additional ACE exposure. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, adolescents who reported four or more ACEs during the pandemic had a prevalence of poor current mental health four times as high as, and a prevalence of past-year suicide attempts 25 times as high as, those without ACEs during the pandemic. Experience of specific ACE types (e.g., emotional abuse) was associated with higher prevalences of poor mental health and suicidal behaviors. Prevention and intervention strategies (5), including early identification and trauma-informed mental health service and support provision, for ACEs and their acute and long-term impacts could help address the U.S. child and adolescent mental health and suicide crisis.†.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Adverse Childhood Experiences , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students , Suicidal Ideation , United States/epidemiology
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1533-1536, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902882

ABSTRACT

Among 664,956 hospitalized COVID-19 patients during March 2020-July 2021 in the United States, select mental health conditions (i.e., anxiety, depression, bipolar, schizophrenia) were associated with increased risk for same-hospital readmission and longer length of stay. Anxiety was also associated with increased risk for intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(5): 475-485, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748793

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected adult mental health (MH), with racial and ethnic minoritized groups disproportionately affected. Objective: To examine changes in adult MH-related emergency department (ED) visits into the Delta variant pandemic period and identify changes and inequities in these visits before and during COVID-19 case surges. Design, Setting, and Participants: This epidemiologic cross-sectional study used National Syndromic Surveillance Program data from US adults aged 18 to 64 years from 1970 to 2352 ED facilities from January 1, 2019, to August 14, 2021. All MH-related ED visits and visits related to 10 disorders (ie, anxiety, depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia spectrum, trauma- and stressor-related, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, disruptive behavioral and impulse, obsessive-compulsive, eating, and tic disorders) were identified. Exposures: The following periods of MH-related ED visits were compared: (1) high Delta variant circulation (July 18-August 14, 2021) with a pre-Delta period (April 18-May 15, 2021), (2) after a COVID-19 case peak (February 14-March 13, 2021) with during a peak (December 27, 2020-January 23, 2021), and (3) the Delta period and the period after a COVID-19 case peak with the respective corresponding weeks during the prepandemic period. Main Outcomes and Measures: ED visits for 10 mental disorders and all MH-related visits. Results: This cross-sectional study included 107 761 319 ED visits among adults aged 18 to 64 years (59 870 475 [56%] women) from January 1, 2019, to August 14, 2021. There was stability in most MH-related ED visit counts between the Delta and pre-Delta periods (percentage change, -1.4% to -7.5%), except for eating disorders (-11.9%) and tic disorders (-19.8%) and after a COVID-19 case peak compared with during a peak (0.6%-7.4%). Most MH-related ED visit counts declined in the Delta period relative to the prepandemic period (-6.4% to -30.7%); there were fluctuations by disorder when comparing after a COVID-19 case peak with the corresponding prepandemic period (-15.4% to 11.3%). Accounting for ED visit volume, MH-related ED visits were a smaller proportion of visits in the Delta period compared with the pre-Delta period (visit ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.85-0.86) and prepandemic period (visit ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.79-0.80). After a COVID-19 case peak, MH-related ED visits were a larger proportion of ED visits compared with during a peak (visit ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.04) and the corresponding prepandemic period (visit ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.11-1.12). Of the 2 510 744 ED visits included in the race and ethnicity analysis, 24 592 (1%) were American Indian or Alaska Native persons, 33 697 (1%) were Asian persons, 494 198 (20%) were Black persons, 389 740 (16%) were Hispanic persons, 5000 (0.2%) were Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander persons, and 1 172 683 (47%) were White persons. There was between- and within-group variation in ED visits by race and ethnicity and increases in selected disorders after COVID-19 peaks for adults aged 18 to 24 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this cross-sectional study suggest that EDs may have increases in MH-related visits after COVID-19 surges, specifically for young adults and individual racial and ethnic minoritized subpopulations. Public health practitioners should consider subpopulation-specific messaging and programmatic strategies that address differences in MH needs, particularly for those historically marginalized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tic Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tic Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 313-318, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702098

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments (EDs) in the United States remain a frontline resource for pediatric health care emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, patterns of health-seeking behavior have changed during the pandemic (1,2). CDC examined changes in U.S. ED visit trends to assess the continued impact of the pandemic on visits among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years (pediatric ED visits). Compared with 2019, pediatric ED visits declined by 51% during 2020, 22% during 2021, and 23% during January 2022. Although visits for non-COVID-19 respiratory illnesses mostly declined, the proportion of visits for some respiratory conditions increased during January 2022 compared with 2019. Weekly number and proportion of ED visits increased for certain types of injuries (e.g., drug poisonings, self-harm, and firearm injuries) and some chronic diseases, with variation by pandemic year and age group. Visits related to behavioral concerns increased across pandemic years, particularly among older children and adolescents. Health care providers and families should remain vigilant for potential indirect impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including health conditions resulting from delayed care, and increasing emotional distress and behavioral health concerns among children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/classification , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , United States
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 319-324, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702097

ABSTRACT

In 2021, a national emergency* for children's mental health was declared by several pediatric health organizations, and the U.S. Surgeon General released an advisory† on mental health among youths. These actions resulted from ongoing concerns about children's mental health in the United States, which was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2). During March-October 2020, among all emergency department (ED) visits, the proportion of mental health-related visits increased by 24% among U.S. children aged 5-11 years and 31% among adolescents aged 12-17 years, compared with 2019 (2). CDC examined changes in U.S. pediatric ED visits for overall mental health conditions (MHCs) and ED visits associated with specific MHCs (depression; anxiety; disruptive behavioral and impulse-control disorders; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; trauma and stressor-related disorders; bipolar disorders; eating disorders; tic disorders; and obsessive-compulsive disorders [OCD]) during 2019 through January 2022 among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years, overall and by sex and age. After declines in weekly visits associated with MHCs among those aged 0-17 years during 2020, weekly numbers of ED visits for MHCs overall and for specific MHCs varied by age and sex during 2021 and January 2022, when compared with corresponding weeks in 2019. Among adolescent females aged 12-17 years, weekly visits increased for two of nine MHCs during 2020 (eating disorders and tic disorders), for four of nine MHCs during 2021 (depression, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and for five of nine MHCs during January 2022 (anxiety, trauma and stressor-related disorders, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and overall MHC visits during January 2022, compared with 2019. Early identification and expanded evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies are critical to improving children's and adolescents' mental health (1-3), especially among adolescent females, who might have increased need.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Disorders/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology
6.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 466-474, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166733

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To obtain timely and detailed data on COVID-19 cases in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses 2 data sources: (1) aggregate counts for daily situational awareness and (2) person-level data for each case (case surveillance). The objective of this study was to describe the sensitivity of case ascertainment and the completeness of person-level data received by CDC through national COVID-19 case surveillance. METHODS: We compared case and death counts from case surveillance data with aggregate counts received by CDC during April 5-September 30, 2020. We analyzed case surveillance data to describe geographic and temporal trends in data completeness for selected variables, including demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, and outcomes. RESULTS: As of November 18, 2020, national COVID-19 case surveillance data received by CDC during April 5-September 30, 2020, included 4 990 629 cases and 141 935 deaths, representing 72.7% of the volume of cases (n = 6 863 251) and 71.8% of the volume of deaths (n = 197 756) in aggregate counts. Nationally, completeness in case surveillance records was highest for age (99.9%) and sex (98.8%). Data on race/ethnicity were complete for 56.9% of cases; completeness varied by region. Data completeness for each underlying medical condition assessed was <25% and generally declined during the study period. About half of case records had complete data on hospitalization and death status. CONCLUSIONS: Incompleteness in national COVID-19 case surveillance data might limit their usefulness. Streamlining and automating surveillance processes would decrease reporting burdens on jurisdictions and likely improve completeness of national COVID-19 case surveillance data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Accuracy , Public Health Surveillance , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(24): 759-765, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598345

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in 5,817,385 reported cases and 362,705 deaths worldwide through May, 30, 2020,† including 1,761,503 aggregated reported cases and 103,700 deaths in the United States.§ Previous analyses during February-early April 2020 indicated that age ≥65 years and underlying health conditions were associated with a higher risk for severe outcomes, which were less common among children aged <18 years (1-3). This report describes demographic characteristics, underlying health conditions, symptoms, and outcomes among 1,320,488 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases individually reported to CDC during January 22-May 30, 2020. Cumulative incidence, 403.6 cases per 100,000 persons,¶ was similar among males (401.1) and females (406.0) and highest among persons aged ≥80 years (902.0). Among 599,636 (45%) cases with known information, 33% of persons were Hispanic or Latino of any race (Hispanic), 22% were non-Hispanic black (black), and 1.3% were non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Among 287,320 (22%) cases with sufficient data on underlying health conditions, the most common were cardiovascular disease (32%), diabetes (30%), and chronic lung disease (18%). Overall, 184,673 (14%) patients were hospitalized, 29,837 (2%) were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), and 71,116 (5%) died. Hospitalizations were six times higher among patients with a reported underlying condition (45.4%) than those without reported underlying conditions (7.6%). Deaths were 12 times higher among patients with reported underlying conditions (19.5%) compared with those without reported underlying conditions (1.6%). The COVID-19 pandemic continues to be severe, particularly in certain population groups. These preliminary findings underscore the need to build on current efforts to collect and analyze case data, especially among those with underlying health conditions. These data are used to monitor trends in COVID-19 illness, identify and respond to localized incidence increase, and inform policies and practices designed to reduce transmission in the United States.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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