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1.
Respiratory Research ; 23(1) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2196285

ABSTRACT

Auto-antibodies (Abs) to type I interferons (IFNs) are found in up to 25% of patients with severe COVID-19, and are implicated in disease pathogenesis. It has remained unknown, however, whether type I IFN auto-Abs are unique to COVID-19, or are also found in other types of severe respiratory illnesses. To address this, we studied a prospective cohort of 284 adults with acute respiratory failure due to causes other than COVID-19. We measured type I IFN auto-Abs by radio ligand binding assay and screened for respiratory viruses using clinical PCR and metagenomic sequencing. Three patients (1.1%) tested positive for type I IFN auto-Abs, and each had a different underlying clinical presentation. Of the 35 patients found to have viral infections, only one patient tested positive for type I IFN auto-Abs. Together, our data suggest that type I IFN auto-Abs are uncommon in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure due to causes other than COVID-19. Copyright © 2022, The Author(s).

2.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):971, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063416

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Despite known increases in alcohol use, changes in alcohol-associated liver disease rates during COVID-19 have not been well characterized. We compared the incidence and outcomes of hospitalized patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AH) before and during COVID-19. Method(s): We identified patients admitted with AH at two tertiary care centers by retrospective chart review in pre-COVID-19 (4/1-6/31/2019) and during COVID-19 (4/1-6/31/2020) time periods using strict criteria (total bilirubin>3.0, AST 35-500, ALT 49-500, and heavy drinking within 60 days of admission). Severe AH was defined as Maddrey's discriminant function (MDF) >= 32. Univariable comparisons were performed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests as appropriate. Result(s): Inpatient admissions for AH increased from 0.13% (90 of 69610) pre- COVID-19 to 0.25% (160 of 63021) during COVID-19 (P<.001). During COVID-19, AH patients had lower rates of polysubstance abuse (40% vs 18%, P<.001) compared to pre-COVID-19 (Table 1). Mental health and substance abuse (MHSA) consult rate was 52% pre- and during COVID-19. Relapse medication use rate was 8% and did not differ significantly between time periods. In severe AH (N=127) frequency of steroid treatment (39% vs 48%, P=0.31), evaluation for (12% vs 16%, P=0.61) or receipt of liver transplant (2% vs 4%, P=1.00) were similar pre- and during COVID-19. Compared to pre-COVID-19, AH patients during COVID-19 had significantly lower rates of all-cause 90-day readmission (59% vs 42%, P=0.02), but there was no difference in rates of 90-day readmission for AH (27% vs 22%, P=0.47), inpatient mortality (11% vs 9%, P=0.66) and 12-month mortality (30% vs 23%, P=0.23). Conclusion(s): Inpatient admission rates for AH nearly doubled during COVID-19. Polysubstance abuse was less common among patients with AH during COVID-19, but 90-day readmission rates remained high pre- and during COVID-19. Low rates of both MHSA consult and relapse medication use indicate a need for greater attention to inpatient alcohol treatment. (Table Presented).

3.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2044873

ABSTRACT

Stemming from requests from regional industrial employers primarily in the manufacturing field, an innovative, state-funded workforce development summer camp and related dual-enrollment course was developed at Austin Peay State University. The focus of the camp and course was to prepare students in their junior and senior years of secondary education for entry-level employment in regional manufacturing facilities. The five-week summer camp included an opportunity to gain OSHA-10 online training, basic theoretical and applied knowledge in engineering technology-related areas pertinent to entry-level manufacturing jobs, and the necessary soft skills needed to meet regional employers' demand. Ten students that were assessed from school districts surrounding the hosting institution participated in the first offering of the camp in the summer of 2021. Topics customized for the potential trained, operator-level employee included industrial safety;basic industrial electrical distribution and motor theory;basic mechanical drive theory;and basic industrial automation theory, including industrial robotics and programmable logic controller theory. All technical content theory was accompanied by a related lab that allowed for the application of the learned theory. Additionally, soft-skills training was provided via online vendors. Assessment of student progress was accomplished through a university-held dual-enrollment course in the form of exams and participation grades. The students enrolled in the course received both secondary and university level academic credit that could be transferred into the university's engineering technology associate's or bachelor's degree programs. While fulfilling the need of regional industrial employers, the summer camp and dual enrollment course provided a university-based learning experience that would better inform the student of future career path opportunities. Due to COVID-19 complications in recruiting targeted students, many of the 10 students participating in the camp did not intend to follow the manufacturing employee career pathway, although all 10 students passed the course with above-average grades. Funding for the camp, which includes scientific and safety demonstrations, is secured for the 2022 summer term, during which a more engineering-focused cohort of students will be an enrollment goal. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022

4.
Journal of Experimental Medicine ; 218(7), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1327310

ABSTRACT

Patients with biallelic loss-of-function variants of AIRE suffer from autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS-1) and produce a broad range of autoantibodies (auto-Abs), including circulating auto-Abs neutralizing most type I interferons (IFNs). These auto-Abs were recently reported to account for at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in the general population. We report 22 APS-1 patients from 21 kindreds in seven countries, aged between 8 and 48 yr and infected with SARS-CoV-2 since February 2020. The 21 patients tested had auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-a subtypes and/or IFN-;one had anti-IFN-beta and another anti-IFN-T, but none had anti-IFN-. Strikingly, 19 patients (86%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, including 15 (68%) admitted to an intensive care unit, 11 (50%) who required mechanical ventilation, and four (18%) who died. Ambulatory disease in three patients (14%) was possibly accounted for by prior or early specific interventions. Preexisting auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs in APS-1 patients confer a very high risk of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia at any age.

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