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1.
Bastard, Paul, Vazquez, Sara, Liu, Jamin, Laurie, Matthew T.; Wang, Chung Yu, Gervais, Adrian, Le Voyer, Tom, Bizien, Lucy, Zamecnik, Colin, Philippot, Quentin, Rosain, Jérémie, Catherinot, Emilie, Willmore, Andrew, Mitchell, Anthea M.; Bair, Rebecca, Garçon, Pierre, Kenney, Heather, Fekkar, Arnaud, Salagianni, Maria, Poulakou, Garyphallia, Siouti, Eleni, Sahanic, Sabina, Tancevski, Ivan, Weiss, Günter, Nagl, Laurenz, Manry, Jérémy, Duvlis, Sotirija, Arroyo-Sánchez, Daniel, Paz Artal, Estela, Rubio, Luis, Perani, Cristiano, Bezzi, Michela, Sottini, Alessandra, Quaresima, Virginia, Roussel, Lucie, Vinh, Donald C.; Reyes, Luis Felipe, Garzaro, Margaux, Hatipoglu, Nevin, Boutboul, David, Tandjaoui-Lambiotte, Yacine, Borghesi, Alessandro, Aliberti, Anna, Cassaniti, Irene, Venet, Fabienne, Monneret, Guillaume, Halwani, Rabih, Sharif-Askari, Narjes Saheb, Danielson, Jeffrey, Burrel, Sonia, Morbieu, Caroline, Stepanovskyy, Yurii, Bondarenko, Anastasia, Volokha, Alla, Boyarchuk, Oksana, Gagro, Alenka, Neuville, Mathilde, Neven, Bénédicte, Keles, Sevgi, Hernu, Romain, Bal, Antonin, Novelli, Antonio, Novelli, Giuseppe, Saker, Kahina, Ailioaie, Oana, Antolí, Arnau, Jeziorski, Eric, Rocamora-Blanch, Gemma, Teixeira, Carla, Delaunay, Clarisse, Lhuillier, Marine, Le Turnier, Paul, Zhang, Yu, Mahevas, Matthieu, Pan-Hammarström, Qiang, Abolhassani, Hassan, Bompoil, Thierry, Dorgham, Karim, consortium, Covid Hge, French, Covid study group, consortium, Comet, Gorochov, Guy, Laouenan, Cédric, Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos, Ng, Lisa F. P.; Renia, Laurent, Pujol, Aurora, Belot, Alexandre, Raffi, François, Allende, Luis M.; Martinez-Picado, Javier, Ozcelik, Tayfun, Keles, Sevgi, Imberti, Luisa, Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Troya, Jesus, Solanich, Xavier, Zhang, Shen-Ying, Puel, Anne, Wilson, Michael R.; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie, Abel, Laurent, Jouanguy, Emmanuelle, Ye, Chun Jimmie, Cobat, Aurélie, Thompson, Leslie M.; Andreakos, Evangelos, Zhang, Qian, Anderson, Mark S.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent, DeRisi, Joseph L..
Science immunology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918542

ABSTRACT

Life-threatening ‘breakthrough’ cases of critical COVID-19 are attributed to poor or waning antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in individuals already at risk. Pre-existing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I IFNs underlie at least 15% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases in unvaccinated individuals;however, their contribution to hypoxemic breakthrough cases in vaccinated people remains unknown. Here, we studied a cohort of 48 individuals (age 20-86 years) who received 2 doses of an mRNA vaccine and developed a breakthrough infection with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia 2 weeks to 4 months later. Antibody levels to the vaccine, neutralization of the virus, and auto-Abs to type I IFNs were measured in the plasma. Forty-two individuals had no known deficiency of B cell immunity and a normal antibody response to the vaccine. Among them, ten (24%) had auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs (aged 43-86 years). Eight of these ten patients had auto-Abs neutralizing both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω, while two neutralized IFN-ω only. No patient neutralized IFN-β. Seven neutralized 10 ng/mL of type I IFNs, and three 100 pg/mL only. Seven patients neutralized SARS-CoV-2 D614G and the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) efficiently, while one patient neutralized Delta slightly less efficiently. Two of the three patients neutralizing only 100 pg/mL of type I IFNs neutralized both D61G and Delta less efficiently. Despite two mRNA vaccine inoculations and the presence of circulating antibodies capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2, auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs may underlie a significant proportion of hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia cases, highlighting the importance of this particularly vulnerable population. Type I IFN auto-Abs are found in 20% of hypoxemic, mRNA vaccinated COVID-19 patients despite SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Description

2.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908835

ABSTRACT

Previous reports demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 binding IgG did not increase significantly between first and second doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine in previously-infected individuals. We tested neutralizing antibodies (nAb) against SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants post first and second doses of BNT162b2 in infection-naïve and previously-infected individuals. Delta, but not Omicron, nAb significantly increased from first to second dose in both groups of individuals. Importantly, we found Omicron nAb titers were much lower than Delta nAb titers and that even after two doses of vaccine, 17 of 29 individuals in the infection-naïve group and 2 of 27 individuals in the previously-infected group did not have detectable Omicron nAb titers. Infection history alone did not adequately predict if a second dose resulted in adequate nAb. For future variants of concern, the discussion on the optimal number of vaccine doses should be based on studies testing for nAb against the specific variant.

3.
IJID Reg ; 2: 96-98, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899806

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) during the first pandemic wave in Senegal. The seroprevalence rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG was assessed in 10 cities in Senegal by testing plasma from volunteers attending healthcare clinics for reasons unrelated to coronavirus disease 2019 (n=3231) between June and October 2020. The overall positivity rate was 20.4% and large geographical differences in seropositivity (6-41.9%) were observed, suggesting that the true number of infections was substantially higher than the official estimate of 8.5%.

4.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549221099239, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879190

ABSTRACT

Upon request from tribal nations, and as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) emergency response, CDC staff provided both remote and on-site assistance to tribes to plan, prepare, and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. From April 2, 2020, through June 11, 2021, CDC deployed a total of 275 staff to assist 29 tribal nations. CDC staff typically collaborated in multiple work areas including epidemiology and surveillance (86%), contact tracing (76%), infection prevention control (72%), community mitigation (72%), health communication (66%), incident command structure (55%), emergency preparedness (38%), and worker safety (31%). We describe the activities of CDC staff in collaboration with 4 tribal nations, Northern Cheyenne, Hoopa Valley, Shoshone-Bannock, and Oglala Sioux Tribe, to combat COVID-19 and lessons learned from the engagement.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 386(19): 1834-1844, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839600
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac130, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784386

ABSTRACT

Background: We sought to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic and clinical correlates of acute and convalescent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among emergency department (ED) patients in Baltimore. Methods: Remnant blood samples from 7450 unique patients were collected over 4 months in 2020 for SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab), HCV Ab, and HIV-1/2 antigen and Ab. Among them, 5012 patients were tested by polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 based on clinical suspicion. Sociodemographics, ED clinical presentations, and outcomes associated with coinfections were assessed. Results: Overall, 729 (9.8%) patients had SARS-CoV-2 (acute or convalescent), 934 (12.5%) HCV, 372 (5.0%) HIV infection, and 211 patients (2.8%) had evidence of any coinfection (HCV/HIV, 1.5%; SARS-CoV-2/HCV, 0.7%; SARS-CoV-2/HIV, 0.3%; SARS-CoV-2/HCV/HIV, 0.3%). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (acute or convalescent) was significantly higher in those with HCV or HIV vs those without (13.6% vs 9.1%, P < .001). Key sociodemographic disparities (race, ethnicity, and poverty) and specific ED clinical characteristics were significantly correlated with having any coinfections vs no infection or individual monoinfection. Among those with HCV or HIV, aged 18-34 years, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and a cardiovascular-related chief complaint had a significantly higher odds of having SARS-CoV-2 (prevalence ratios: 2.02, 2.37, 5.81, and 2.07, respectively). Conclusions: The burden of SARS-CoV-2, HCV, and HIV co-pandemics and their associations with specific sociodemographic disparities, clinical presentations, and outcomes suggest that urban EDs should consider implementing integrated screening and linkage-to-care programs for these 3 infections.

7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761004

ABSTRACT

The Caribbean region is lacking an assessment of the antibody response and side effects experienced after AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination (AZD1222). We examined severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG levels and report the side effects noted in a Jamaican population after AZD1222 vaccination. Median RBD IgG levels for persons without evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were 43.1 binding international units (bIU)/mL 3 to 7 weeks after the first dose, increasing to 100.1 bIU/mL 3 to 7 weeks after the second dose, and decreasing to 46.9 bIU/mL 16 to 22 weeks after the second dose. The median RBD IgG level 2 to 8 weeks after symptom onset for unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2-infected persons of all disease severities was 411.6 bIU/mL. Common AZD1222 side effects after the first dose were injection site pain, headache, and chills. Most people reported no side effects after the second dose. AZD1222 is widely used across the English-speaking Caribbean, and our study provides evidence for its continued safe and effective use in vaccination programs.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 356-360, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729823

ABSTRACT

Detection and epidemiologic characterization of infectious disease outbreaks are key for early identification and response to potential pandemic threats. The rapid global spread of severe SARS-CoV-2 in 2020 highlighted the critical role of diagnostics in understanding the epidemiology of the virus early in the pandemic. As a natural extension of Abbott's work in diagnostics, virus discovery, and virus surveillance, the Abbott Pandemic Defense Coalition (APDC) was launched in early 2021. The APDC is a global multisector scientific and public health partnership whose primary objective is the early detection and mitigation of infectious disease threats of pandemic potential. As of January 2022, the APDC network has partners on 5 continents including academic institutions, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations. A novel element of the APDC is the capacity for early development and rapid deployment of scalable, quality diagnostics targeting newly identified pathogens of pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329383

ABSTRACT

Background Serological assays used to estimate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rely on manufacturer cut-offs established based on more severe early cases who tended to be older. Methods We conducted a household-based serosurvey of 4,677 individuals from 2,619 households in Chennai, India from January to May, 2021. Samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies to the spike (S) and nucelocapsid (N) proteins. We calculated seroprevalence using manufacturer cut-offs and using a mixture model in which individuals were assigned a probability of being seropositive based on their measured IgG, accounting for heterogeneous antibody response across individuals. Results The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence to anti-S and anti-N IgG was 62.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.6 to 63.4) and 13.5% (95% CI, 12.6 to 14.5), respectively applying the manufacturer’s cut-offs, with low inter-assay agreement (Cohen’s kappa 0.15). With the mixture model, estimated anti-S IgG and anti-N IgG seroprevalence was 64.9% (95% Credible Interval [CrI], 63.8 to 66.0) and 51.5% (95% CrI, 50.2 to 52.9) respectively, with high inter-assay agreement (Cohen’s kappa 0.66). Age and socioeconomic factors showed inconsistent relationships with anti-S IgG and anti-N IgG seropositivity using manufacturer’s cut-offs, but the mixture model reconciled these differences. In the mixture model, age was not associated with seropositivity, and improved household ventilation was associated with lower seropositivity odds. Conclusions With global vaccine scale-up, the utility of the more stable anti-S IgG assay may be limited due to the inclusion of the S protein in several vaccines. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimates using alternative targets must consider heterogeneity in seroresponse to ensure seroprevalence is not underestimated and correlates not misinterpreted.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 174, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, key subpopulations such as healthcare workers (HCW) may have a higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. In Uganda, limited access to Personal Protective Equipment and lack of clarity on the extent/pattern of community spread may exacerbate this situation. The country established infection prevention/control measures such as lockdowns and proper hand hygiene. However, due to resource limitations and fatigue, compliance is low, posing continued onward transmission risk. This study aimed to describe extent of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in selected populations within the Rakai region of Uganda. METHODS: From 30th November 2020 to 8th January 2021, we collected venous blood from 753 HCW at twenty-six health facilities in South-Central Uganda and from 227 population-cohort participants who reported specific COVID-19 like symptoms (fever, cough, loss of taste and appetite) in a prior phone-based survey conducted (between May and August 2020) during the first national lockdown. 636 plasma specimens collected from individuals considered high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection, prior to the first confirmed COVID-19 case in Uganda were also retrieved. Specimens were tested for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 using the CoronaChek™ rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG lateral flow test assay. IgM only positive samples were confirmed using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) (Architect AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgM) which targets the spike protein. SARS-CoV-2 exposure was defined as either confirmed IgM, both IgM and IgG or sole IgG positivity. Overall seroprevalence in each participant group was estimated, adjusting for test performance. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in HCW was 26.7% [95%CI: 23.5, 29.8] with no difference by sex, age, or cadre. We observed no association between PPE use and seropositivity among exposed healthcare workers. Of the phone-based survey participants, 15.6% [95%CI: 10.9, 20.3] had antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, with no difference by HIV status, sex, age, or occupation. Among 636 plasma specimens collected prior to the first confirmed COVID-19 case, 2.3% [95%CI: 1.2, 3.5] were reactive. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest high seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among HCW and substantial exposure in persons presenting with specific COVID-19 like symptoms in the general population of South-Central Uganda. Based on current limitations in serological test confirmation, it remains unclear whether seroprevalence among plasma specimens collected prior to confirmation of the first COVID-19 case implies prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure in Uganda.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Communicable Disease Control , Health Personnel , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Uganda/epidemiology
11.
J Nephrol ; 35(5): 1467-1478, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the reports of severe adverse reactions to the AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine, patients who had received one dose of ChAdOx1-S-nCoV-19 vaccine were recommended a second dose of Pfizer's BNT162b2 vaccine. In hemodialysis patients, we compared the humoral immunogenicity and tolerability of homologous vaccination with ChAdOx1-nCoV-19/ChAdOx1-nCoV-19 (ChAd/ChAd) and BNT162b2/BNT162b2 (BNT/BNT) with heterologous vaccination of first dose of ChAdOx1-nCoV-19 and a second dose with BNT162b2 (ChAd/BNT). METHODS: In a multicenter prospective observational study, SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG antibody levels, Nucleocapsid-protein-IgG-antibodies, and vaccine tolerability were assessed 6 weeks after second SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in 137 hemodialysis patients and 24 immunocompetent medical personnel. RESULTS: In COVID-19-naïve hemodialysis patients, significantly higher median SARS-CoV-2-spike IgG levels were found after ChAd/BNT (N = 16) compared to BNT/BNT (N = 100) or ChAd/ChAd (N = 10) (1744 [25th-75th percentile 276-2840] BAU/mL versus 361 [25th-75th percentile 120-936] BAU/mL; p = 0.009; 1744 [25th-75th percentile 276-2840] BAU/mL versus 100 [25th-75th percentile 41-346] BAU/mL; p = 0.017, respectively). Vaccinated, COVID-19-naïve medical personnel had median SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG levels of 650 (25th-75th percentile 217-1402) BAU/mL and vaccinated hemodialysis patients with prior COVID-19 7047 (25th-75th percentile 685-10,794) BAU/mL (N = 11). In multivariable regression analysis, heterologous vaccination (ChAd/BNT) of COVID-19-naïve hemodialysis patients was independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG levels. The first dose of ChAd and the second dose of BNT after the first vaccination with ChAd (heterologous vaccination, ChAd/BNT) were associated with more frequent but manageable side effects compared with homologous BNT. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, heterologous vaccination with ChAd/BNT appears to induce stronger humoral immunity and more frequent but manageable side effects than homologous vaccination with BNT/BNT or with ChAd/ChAd in COVID-19-naïve hemodialysis patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(1): e0174221, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629698

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care antigen tests are an important tool for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Antigen tests are less sensitive than real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR). Data on the performance of the BinaxNOW antigen test compared to rRT-PCR and viral culture by symptom and known exposure status, timing during disease, or exposure period and demographic variables are limited. During 3 to 17 November 2020, we collected paired upper respiratory swab specimens to test for SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR and Abbott BinaxNOW antigen test at two community testing sites in Pima County, Arizona. We administered a questionnaire to capture symptoms, known exposure status, and previous SARS-CoV-2 test results. Specimens positive by either test were analyzed by viral culture. Previously we showed overall BinaxNOW sensitivity was 52.5%. Here, we showed BinaxNOW sensitivity increased to 65.7% among currently symptomatic individuals reporting a known exposure. BinaxNOW sensitivity was lower among participants with a known exposure and previously symptomatic (32.4%) or never symptomatic (47.1%) within 14 days of testing. Sensitivity was 71.1% in participants within a week of symptom onset. In participants with a known exposure, sensitivity was highest 8 to 10 days postexposure (75%). The positive predictive value for recovery of virus in cell culture was 56.7% for BinaxNOW-positive and 35.4% for rRT-PCR-positive specimens. Result reporting time was 2.5 h for BinaxNOW and 26 h for rRT-PCR. Point-of-care antigen tests have a shorter turnaround time than laboratory-based nucleic acid amplification tests, which allows for more rapid identification of infected individuals. Antigen test sensitivity limitations are important to consider when developing a testing program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627754

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 vaccines prevent severe disease effectively, post-vaccination 'breakthrough' COVID-19 infections and transmission among vaccinated individuals remain ongoing concerns. We present an in-depth characterization of transmission and immunity among vaccinated individuals in a household, revealing complex dynamics and unappreciated comorbidities, including autoimmunity to type1 interferon in the presumptive index case.

14.
Tomography ; 7(4): 972-979, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572631

ABSTRACT

We sought to determine relative utilization of abdominal imaging modalities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at a single institution during the first surge and evaluate whether abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changed diagnosis and management. 1107 COVID-19 patients who had abdominal imaging were analyzed for modality and imaging setting. Patients who underwent abdominal MRI were reviewed to determine impact on management. Of 2259 examinations, 80% were inpatient, 14% were emergency, and 6% were outpatient consisting of 55% radiograph (XR), 31% computed tomography (CT), 13% ultrasound (US), and 0.6% MRI. Among 1107 patients, abdominal MRI was performed in 12 within 100 days of positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. Indications were unrelated to COVID-19 in 75% while MRI was performed for workup of acute liver dysfunction in 25%. In 1 of 12 patients, MRI resulted in change to management unrelated to COVID-19 diagnosis. During the first surge of COVID-19 at one institution, the most common abdominal imaging examinations were radiographs and CT followed by ultrasound with the majority being performed as inpatients. Future COVID-19 surges may place disproportionate demands on inpatient abdominal radiography and CT resources. Abdominal MRI was rarely performed and did not lead to change in diagnosis or management related to COVID-19 but needs higher patient numbers for accurate assessment of utility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
15.
Semin Dial ; 35(3): 269-277, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, information on the immunogenicity and tolerability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is still scarce. We compared the immunogenicity and tolerability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination of PD patients with that of medical personnel. METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study, PD patients and immunocompetent medical personnel were evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG- and Nucleocapsid-IgG-antibody-levels before, 2 weeks after the first, and 6 weeks after the second SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and vaccine tolerability after the first and second vaccination. RESULTS: In COVID-19-naïve PD patients (N = 19), lower SARS-CoV-2-spike-IgG-levels were found compared with COVID-19-naïve medical personnel (N = 24) 6 weeks after second vaccination (median 1438 AU/ml [25th-75th percentile 775-5261] versus 4577 [1529-9871]; p = 0.045). This finding resulted in a lower rate of strong vaccine response (spike-IgG ≥ 1000 AU/ml) of COVID-19-naïve PD patients compared with medical personnel (58% versus 92%; p = 0.013), but not for seroconversion rate (spike-IgG ≥ 50 AU/ml: 100% vs. 100%; p > 0.99). After first vaccination, COVID-naïve PD patients presented with significantly fewer side effects than medical personnel (number of any side effect: 1 [1-2] vs. 4 [1-7]; p = 0.015). A similar pattern with slightly decreased frequencies of side effects was observed for tolerability of second SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in PD patients and medical personnel (number of any side effects: 1 [1-1] vs. 2 [1-5]; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in COVID-19-naïve PD patients appeared to induce a very high rate of seroconversion but a substantially lower rate of patients with a strong response compared with medical personnel. Vaccination appeared to be safe in the PD patients studied.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peritoneal Dialysis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291824

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, key subpopulations such as healthcare workers (HCWs) have a higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. In Uganda, limited access to personal protective equipment amidst lack of clarity on the extent and pattern of the community disease burden may exacerbate this situation. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence among high-risk sub-populations in South-central Uganda, including HCWs, persons within the general population previously reporting experiencing key COVID-19 like symptoms (fever, cough, loss of taste and smell) and archived plasma specimens collected between October 2019 – 18 th March 2020, prior to confirmation of COVID-19 in Uganda. Methods: : From November 2020 - January 2021, we collected venous blood from HCWs at selected health facilities in South-Central Uganda and from population-cohort participants who reported specific COVID-19 like symptoms in a prior phone-based survey conducted (between May to August 2020) during the first national lockdown. Pre-lockdown plasma collected (between October 2019 and March 18 th , 2020) from individuals considered high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection was retrieved. Specimens were tested for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 using the CoronaChek TM rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG lateral flow test assay. IgM only positive samples were confirmed using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) (Architect AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgM) which targets the spike protein. SARS-CoV-2 exposure was defined as either confirmed IgM, both IgM and IgG or sole IgG positivity. Results: : The seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in HCWs was 21.1% [95%CI: 18.2-24.2]. Of the phone-based survey participants, 11.9% [95%CI: 8.0-16.8] had antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Among 636 pre-lockdown plasma specimens, 1.7% [95%CI: 0.9-3.1] were reactive. Conclusions: : Findings suggest a high seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among HCWs and substantial exposure in persons presenting with specific COVID-19 like symptoms in the general population of South-central Uganda. Based on current limitations in serological test confirmation, it remains unclear whether pre-lockdown seropositivity implies prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure in Uganda.

17.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(612): eabh2624, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371845

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing autoantibodies against type I interferons (IFNs) have been found in some patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the prevalence of these antibodies, their longitudinal dynamics across the disease severity scale, and their functional effects on circulating leukocytes remain unknown. Here, in 284 patients with COVID-19, we found type I IFN­specific autoantibodies in peripheral blood samples from 19% of patients with critical disease and 6% of patients with severe disease. We found no type I IFN autoantibodies in individuals with moderate disease. Longitudinal profiling of over 600,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells using multiplexed single-cell epitope and transcriptome sequencing from 54 patients with COVID-19 and 26 non­COVID-19 controls revealed a lack of type I IFN­stimulated gene (ISG-I) responses in myeloid cells from patients with critical disease. This was especially evident in dendritic cell populations isolated from patients with critical disease producing type I IFN­specific autoantibodies. Moreover, we found elevated expression of the inhibitory receptor leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LAIR1) on the surface of monocytes isolated from patients with critical disease early in the disease course. LAIR1 expression is inversely correlated with ISG-I expression response in patients with COVID-19 but is not expressed in healthy controls. The deficient ISG-I response observed in patients with critical COVID-19 with and without type I IFN­specific autoantibodies supports a unifying model for disease pathogenesis involving ISG-I suppression through convergent mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S106-S109, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364768

ABSTRACT

The 2020 Sturgis motorcycle rally resulted in widespread transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 across the United States. At least 649 coronavirus disease 2019 cases were identified, including secondary and tertiary spread to close contacts. To limit transmission, persons attending events should be vaccinated or wear masks and practice physical distancing if unvaccinated. Persons with a known exposure should be managed according to their coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination or prior infection status and may include quarantine and coronavirus disease 2019 testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Contact Tracing , Humans , Motorcycles , Quarantine , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Clin Virol ; 143: 104945, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364216

ABSTRACT

While diagnosis of COVID-19 relies on qualitative molecular testing for the absence or presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, quantitative viral load determination for SARS-CoV-2 has many potential applications in antiviral therapy and vaccine trials as well as implications for public health and quarantine guidance. To date, no quantitative SARS-CoV-2 viral load tests have been authorized for clinical use by the FDA. In this study, we modified the FDA emergency use authorized qualitative RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay into a quantitative SARS-CoV-2 Laboratory Developed Test (LDT) using newly developed Abbott SARS-CoV-2 calibration standards. Both analytical and clinical performance of this SARS-CoV-2 quantitative LDT was evaluated using nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). We further assessed the correlation between Ct and the ability to culture virus on Vero CCL81 cells. The SARS-CoV-2 quantitative LDT demonstrated high linearity with R2 value of 0.992, high inter- and intra-assay reproducibility across the dynamic range (SDs ± 0.08-0.14 log10 copies/mL for inter-assay reproducibility and ± 0.09 to 0.19 log10 copies/mL for intra-assay reproducibility). Lower limit of detection was determined as 1.90 log10 copies/mL. The highest Ct at which CPE was detected ranged between 28.21-28.49, corresponding to approximately 4.2 log10 copies/mL. Quantitative tests, validated against viral culture capacity, may allow more accurate identification of individuals with and without infectious viral shedding from the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Laboratories , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
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