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1.
Journal of Diabetes Nursing ; 26(1):226, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1801413

ABSTRACT

One in three individuals have a >10% reduction in time in range in the week following COVID-19 vaccination.

2.
Diabetes Ther ; 13(5): 1037-1051, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787895

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Research is ongoing to increase our understanding of how much a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects someone's risk of becoming seriously unwell following a COVID-19 infection. In this study we set out to determine the relative likelihood of death following COVID-19 infection in people with T2DM when compared to those without T2DM. This was conducted as an urban population study and based in the UK. METHODS: Analysis of electronic health record data was performed relating to people living in the Greater Manchester conurbation (population 2.82 million) who had a recorded diagnosis of T2DM and subsequent COVID-19 confirmed infection. Each individual with T2DM (n = 13,807) was matched with three COVID-19-infected non-diabetes controls (n = 39,583). Data were extracted from the Greater Manchester Care Record (GMCR) database for the period 1 January 2020 to 30 June 2021. Social disadvantage was assessed through Townsend scores. Death rates were compared in people with T2DM to their respective non-diabetes controls; potential predictive factors influencing the relative likelihood of admission were ascertained using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: For individuals with T2DM, their mortality rate after a COVID-19 positive test was 7.7% vs 6.0% in matched controls; the relative risk (RR) of death was 1.28. From univariate analysis performed within the group of individuals with T2DM, the likelihood of death following a COVID-19 recorded infection was lower in people taking metformin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonist. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and hypertension were associated with increased mortality and had odds ratios of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.96-0.97) and 1.92 (95% confidence interval 1.68-2.20), respectively. Likelihood of death following a COVID-19 infection was also higher in those people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or severe enduring mental illness but not with asthma, and in people taking aspirin/clopidogrel/insulin. Smoking in people with T2DM significantly increased mortality rate (odds ratio of 1.46; 95% confidence interval 1.29-1.65). In a combined analysis of patients with T2DM and controls, multiple regression modelling indicated that the factors independently relating to a higher likelihood of death (accounting for 26% of variance) were T2DM, age, male gender and social deprivation (higher Townsend score). CONCLUSION: Following confirmed infection with COVID-19 a number of factors are associated with mortality in individuals with T2DM. Prescription of metformin, SGLT2is or GLP-1 agonists and non-smoking status appeared to be associated with a reduced the risk of death for people with T2DM. Age, male sex and social disadvantage are associated with an increased risk of death.

3.
Diabetes Ther ; 13(5): 1007-1021, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756922

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since early 2020 the whole world has been challenged by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the associated global pandemic (Covid-19). People with diabetes are particularly at high risk of becoming seriously unwell after contracting this virus. METHODS: This population-based study included people living in the Greater Manchester conurbation who had a recorded diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and subsequent Covid-19 infection. Each individual with T1DM (n = 862) or T2DM (n = 13,225) was matched with three Covid-19-infected non-diabetes controls. RESULTS: For individuals with T1DM, hospital admission rate in the first 28 days after a positive Covid-19 test was 10% vs 4.7% in age/gender-matched controls [relative risk (RR) 2.1]. For individuals with T2DM, hospital admission rate after a positive Covid-19 test was 16.3% vs 11.6% in age/gender-matched controls (RR 1.4). The average Townsend score was higher in T2DM (1.8) vs matched controls (0.4), with a higher proportion of people with T2DM observed in the top two quintiles of greatest disadvantage (p < 0.001). For Covid-19-infected individuals with T1DM, factors influencing admission likelihood included age, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, HbA1c, low HDL-cholesterol, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and being of African/mixed ethnicity. In Covid-19-infected individuals with T2DM, factors related to a higher admission rate included age, Townsend index, comorbidity with COPD/asthma and severe mental illness (SMI), lower eGFR. Metformin prescription lowered the likelihood. For multivariate analysis in combined individuals with T2DM/controls, factors relating to higher likelihood of admission were having T2DM/age/male gender/diagnosed COPD/diagnosed hypertension/social deprivation (higher Townsend index) and non-white ethnicity (all groups). CONCLUSION: In a UK population we have confirmed a significantly higher likelihood of admission in people with diabetes following Covid-19 infection. A number of factors mediate that increased likelihood of hospital admission. For T2DM, the majority of factors related to increased admission rate are common to the general population but more prevalent in T2DM. There was a protective effect of metformin in people with T2DM.

6.
Diabet Med ; 39(4): e14774, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583592

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Evidence suggests that some people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) experience temporary instability of blood glucose (BG) levels after COVID-19 vaccination. We aimed to assess this objectively. METHODS: We examined the interstitial glucose profile of 97 consecutive adults (age ≥ 18 years) with T1DM using the FreeStyle Libre® flash glucose monitor in the periods immediately before and after their first COVID-19 vaccination. The primary outcome measure was percentage (%) interstitial glucose readings within the target range 3.9-10 mmol/L for 7 days prior to the vaccination and the 7 days after the vaccination. Data are mean ± standard error. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the % interstitial glucose on target (3.9-10.0) for the 7 days following vaccination (mean 52.2% ± 2.0%) versus pre-COVID-19 vaccination (mean 55.0% ± 2.0%) (p = 0.030). 58% of individuals with T1DM showed a reduction in the 'time in target range' in the week after vaccination. 30% showed a decrease of time within the target range of over 10%, and 10% showed a decrease in time within target range of over 20%. The change in interstitial glucose proportion on target in the week following vaccination was most pronounced for people taking metformin/dapagliflozin + basal bolus insulin (change -7.6%) and for people with HbA1c below the median (change -5.7%). CONCLUSION: In T1DM, we have shown that initial COVID-19 vaccination can cause temporary perturbation of interstitial glucose, with this effect more pronounced in people talking oral hypoglycaemic medication plus insulin, and when HbA1c is lower.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Glycemic Control , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Glycemic Control/methods , Glycemic Control/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
Thorax ; 76(6): 601-606, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203985

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Shift work is associated with lung disease and infections. We therefore investigated the impact of shift work on significant COVID-19 illness. METHODS: 501 000 UK Biobank participants were linked to secondary care SARS-CoV-2 PCR results from Public Health England. Healthcare worker occupational testing and those without an occupational history were excluded from analysis. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression (age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation index) revealed that irregular shift work (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.92 to 3.05), permanent shift work (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.19), day shift work (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.6), irregular night shift work (OR 3.04, 95% CI 2.37 to 3.9) and permanent night shift work (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.67 to 3.7) were all associated with positive COVID-19 tests compared with participants that did not perform shift work. This relationship persisted after adding sleep duration, chronotype, premorbid disease, body mass index, alcohol and smoking to the model. The effects of workplace were controlled for in three ways: (1) by adding in work factors (proximity to a colleague combined with estimated disease exposure) to the multivariate model or (2) comparing participants within each job sector (non-essential, essential and healthcare) and (3) comparing shift work and non-shift working colleagues. In all cases, shift work was significantly associated with COVID-19. In 2017, 120 307 UK Biobank participants had their occupational history reprofiled. Using this updated occupational data shift work remained associated with COVID-19 (OR 4.48 (95% CI 1.8 to 11.18). CONCLUSIONS: Shift work is associated with a higher likelihood of in-hospital COVID-19 positivity. This risk could potentially be mitigated via additional workplace precautions or vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Shift Work Schedule , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Int J Clin Pract ; 74(11): e13617, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The worldwide outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has already put healthcare workers (HCWs) at a high risk of infection. The question of how to give HCWs the best protection against infection is a priority. METHODS: We searched systematic reviews and original studies in Medline (via Ovid) and Chinese Wan Fang digital database from inception to May, 2020, using terms 'coronavirus', 'health personnel', and 'personal protective equipment' to find evidence about the use of full-body PPEs and other PPEs by HCW exposed highly infectious diseases. RESULTS: Covering more of the body could provide better protection for HCWs. Of importance, it is not just the provision of PPE but the skills in donning and doffing of PPE that are important, this being a key time for potential transmission of pathogen to the HCW and in due time from them to others. In relation to face masks, the evidence indicates that a higher-level specification of face masks and respirators (such as N95) seems to be essential to protect HCWs from coronavirus infection. In community setting, the use of masks in the case of well individuals could be beneficial. Evidence specifically around PPE and protection from the COVID-19 virus is limited. CONCLUSION: Covering more of the body, and a higher-level specification of masks and respirators could provide better protection for HCWs. Community mask usecould be beneficial. High quality studies still need to examine the protection of PPE against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Clin Pract ; 74(8): e13528, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to radical political control of social behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to explore data trends from the pandemic regarding infection rates/policy impact, and draw learning points for informing the unlocking process. METHODS: The daily published cases in England in each of 149 Upper Tier Local Authority (UTLA) areas were converted to Average Daily Infection Rate (ADIR), an R-value - the number of further people infected by one infected person during their infectious phase with Rate of Change of Infection Rate (RCIR) also calculated. Stepwise regression was carried out to see what local factors could be linked to differences in local infection rates FINDINGS: By the 19th April 2020 the infection R has fallen from 2.8 on 23rd March before the lockdown and has stabilised at about 0.8, sufficient for suppression. However there remain significant variations between England regions. Regression analysis across UTLAs found that the only factor relating to reduction in ADIR was the historic number of confirmed number infection/000 population, There is however wide variation between Upper Tier Local Authorities (UTLA) areas. Extrapolation of these results showed that unreported community infection may be 150 times higher than reported cases, providing evidence that by the end of the second week in April, 26.8% of the population may already have had the disease and so have increased immunityExtrapolation of these results showed that unreported community infection may be 150 times higher than reported cases, providing evidence that by the end of the second week in April, 26.8% of the population may already have had the disease and so have increased immunity. INTERPRETATION: Analysis of current case data using infectious ratio has provided novel insight into the current national state and can be used to make better-informed decisions about future management of restricted social behaviour and movement.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/trends , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Behavior , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , England/epidemiology , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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