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1.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in Portuguese | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327898

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus del 2019, enfermedad producida por el virus SARS-Cov2 puede cursar con distintos niveles de gravedad e incluso los infectados pueden requerir soporte ventilatorio en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Esto implica un aumento de la carga a los sistemas de salud que podría superar su capacidad. Al ser esta una posibilidad previsible se describen a continuación posibles alternativas para aumentar los recursos humanos y materiales en situaciones de emergencia sanitaria.

2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(10): e364-e369, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there are only sporadic reports of acute abdomen and appendicitis in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Children 17 years of age or younger assessed in 5 Latin American countries with a diagnosis of microbiologically confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and children fulfilling MIS-C definition were included. For children with acute abdomen, we investigate main radiologic patterns, surgical treatment and intraoperative findings, outcomes. FINDINGS: One-thousand ten children were enrolled. Forty-two children (4.2%) had a clinical diagnosis of acute abdomen. Four (9.5%) were diagnosed with MIS-C and did not undergo surgery. The remaining 38 children (3.8%) underwent abdominal surgery due to suspected appendicitis, 34 of them (89.7%) had an intraoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), while 4 of them had nonsurgical findings. Eight children died (0.8%), none of them being diagnosed with appendicitis. Children with AA were significantly older than those without (P < 0.0001). Children with complicated appendicitis had more frequently fever (85.7% vs. 60%), intestinal distension on the abdominal radiograph (7.1% vs. none), leukocytosis (85.7% vs. 40%) and high levels of C-reactive protein (35.7% vs. 5%), although differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that children may present with acute abdomen during COVID-19 or MIS-C, which is not always associated with intraoperative findings of appendicitis, particularly in case of MIS-C. Further studies are needed to better characterize children with acute abdomen during COVID-19 or MIS-C, to avoid delay in diagnosis of surgical conditions and at the same time, minimize unnecessary surgical approaches.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute/etiology , Abdomen, Acute/virology , Appendicitis/etiology , Appendicitis/virology , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Latin America , Male , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21251212

ABSTRACT

Data from adult studies how that COVID-19 is more severe in men than women. However, no data are available for the pediatric population. For this reason, we performed this study aiming to understand if sex influenced disease severity and outcomes in a large cohort of latin-american children with COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C). We found that a higher percentage of male children developed MIS-C (8.9% vs 5% in females) and died (1.2% and 0.4% in females), although on multivariate adjusted analyses the only statistically significant difference was found in need of hospitalization, with females less frequently admitted compared with boys (25.6% vs 35.4%). This data are preliminary and need further independent studies to better assess the role of sex.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e1-e6, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there are no comprehensive data on pediatric COVID-19 from Latin America. This study aims to assess COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) in Latin American children, to appropriately plan and allocate resources to face the pandemic on a local and international level. METHODS: Ambispective multicenter cohort study from 5 Latin American countries. Children 18 years of age or younger with microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or fulfilling MIS-C definition were included. FINDINGS: Four hundred nine children were included, with a median age of 3.0 years (interquartile range 0.6-9.0). Of these, 95 (23.2%) were diagnosed with MIS-C. One hundred ninety-one (46.7%) children were admitted to hospital and 52 (12.7%) required admission to a pediatric intensive care unit. Ninety-two (22.5%) patients required oxygen support: 8 (2%) were started on continuous positive airway pressure and 29 (7%) on mechanical ventilation. Thirty-five (8.5%) patients required inotropic support. The following factors were associated with pediatric intensive care unit admission: preexisting medical condition (P < 0.0001), immunodeficiency (P = 0.01), lower respiratory tract infection (P < 0.0001), gastrointestinal symptoms (P = 0.006), radiologic changes suggestive of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (P < 0.0001) and low socioeconomic conditions (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a generally more severe form of COVID-19 and a high number of MIS-C in Latin American children, compared with studies from China, Europe and North America, and support current evidence of a more severe disease in Latin/Hispanic children or in people of lower socioeconomic level. The findings highlight an urgent need for more data on COVID-19 in Latin America.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
5.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20243568

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTo date, there are no comprehensive data on antibiotic use in children with COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C). MethodsMulticenter cohort study from 5 Latin American countries. Children 17 years of age or younger with microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or fulfilling MIS-C definition were included. Antibiotic prescriptions were collected and factors associated with their use were calculated. Findings990 children were included, with a median age of 3 years (interquartile range 1-9). Of these, 69 (7.0%) were diagnosed with MIS-C. The prevalence of antibiotic use was 24.5% (n = 243). MIS-C with (OR = 45.48) or without (OR = 10.35) cardiac involvement, provision of intensive care (OR = 9.60), need for hospital care (OR = 6.87), pneumonia and/or ARDS detected through chest X-rays (OR = 4.40), administration of systemic corticosteroids (OR = 4.39), oxygen support, mechanical ventilation or CPAP (OR = 2.21), pyrexia (OR = 1.84), and female sex (OR = 1.50) were independently associated with increased use of antibiotics. On the contrary, lower respiratory tract infections without radiologic evidence of pneumonia/ARDS and not requiring respiratory support (OR = 0.34) were independently associated with decreased use of antibiotics. There was significant variation in antibiotic use across the hospitals. ConclusionsOur study showed a relatively high rate of antibiotic prescriptions in children with COVID-19 and in particular in those with severe disease or MIS-C. Importantly, we found a significant variation in reasons for prescriptions of antibiotics and type of chosen therapies, as well in hospital practices, highlighting current uncertainties and lack of guidelines for the recognition of bacterial infections in children with COVID-19. Prospective studies are needed to provide better evidence on the recognition and management of bacterial infections in COVID-19 children. What is knownCOVID-19 may worsen antibiotic prescription practices What this newCOVID-19 and MIS-C children frequently received antibiotics There was a wide variation in antibiotic prescriptions among institutions, highlighting the lack of practicle guidelines in the use of antibiotics in children with COVID-19

6.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20184242

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTo date, there are no comprehensive data on pediatric COVID-19 from Latin America. This study aims to assess COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) in Latin American children, in order to appropriately plan and allocate resources to face the pandemic on a local and International lever MethodsAmbispective multicentre cohort study from five Latin American countries. Children aged 18 years or younger with microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Findings409 children were included, with a median age of 53.0 years (IQR 0.6-9.0). Of these, 95 191 (23.2%) were diagnosed with MIS-C. 191 (46.7%) children were admitted to hospital and 52 (12.7%) required admission to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unite (PICU). 92 (22.5%) patients required oxygen support: 8 (2%) were started on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and 29 (7%) on mechanical ventilation. 35 (8.5%) patients required inotropic support. The following factors were associated with PICU admission: pre-existing medical condition (P < 0.0001), immunodeficiency (P = 0.01), lower respiratory tract infection (P< 0.0001), gastrointestinal symptoms (P = 0.006), radiological changes suggestive of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (P< 0.0001), low socioeconomic conditions (P 0.009). ConclusionsThis study shows a generally more severe form of COVID-19 and a high number of MIS-C in Latin American children, compared with studies from China, Europe and North America, and support current evidence of a more severe disease in Latin/Hyspanic children or in people of lower socioeconomic level. The findings highlight an urgent need of more data of COVID-19 in South America.

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