Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.09.27.509649


Exposure to different mutagens leaves distinct mutational patterns that can allow prediction of pathogen replication niches (Ruis 2022). We therefore hypothesised that analysis of SARS-CoV-2 mutational spectra might show lineage-specific differences, dependant on the dominant site(s) of replication and onwards transmission, and could therefore rapidly infer virulence of emergent variants of concern (VOC; Konings 2021). Through mutational spectrum analysis, we found a significant reduction in G>T mutations in Omicron, which replicates in the upper respiratory tract (URT), compared to other lineages, which replicate in both upper and lower respiratory tracts (LRT). Mutational analysis of other viruses and bacteria indicates a robust, generalisable association of high G>T mutations with replication within the LRT. Monitoring G>T mutation rates over time, we found early separation of Omicron from Beta, Gamma and Delta, while the mutational burden in Alpha varied consistent with changes in transmission source as social restrictions were lifted. This supports the use of mutational spectra to infer niches of established and emergent pathogens.

arxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2201.01232v2


Recent work has shown the potential of using audio data (eg, cough, breathing, and voice) in the screening for COVID-19. However, these approaches only focus on one-off detection and detect the infection given the current audio sample, but do not monitor disease progression in COVID-19. Limited exploration has been put forward to continuously monitor COVID-19 progression, especially recovery, through longitudinal audio data. Tracking disease progression characteristics could lead to more timely treatment. The primary objective of this study is to explore the potential of longitudinal audio samples over time for COVID-19 progression prediction and, especially, recovery trend prediction using sequential deep learning techniques. Crowdsourced respiratory audio data, including breathing, cough, and voice samples, from 212 individuals over 5-385 days were analyzed. We developed a deep learning-enabled tracking tool using gated recurrent units (GRUs) to detect COVID-19 progression by exploring the audio dynamics of the individuals' historical audio biomarkers. The investigation comprised 2 parts: (1) COVID-19 detection in terms of positive and negative (healthy) tests, and (2) longitudinal disease progression prediction over time in terms of probability of positive tests. The strong performance for COVID-19 detection, yielding an AUROC of 0.79, a sensitivity of 0.75, and a specificity of 0.71 supported the effectiveness of the approach compared to methods that do not leverage longitudinal dynamics. We further examined the predicted disease progression trajectory, displaying high consistency with test results with a correlation of 0.75 in the test cohort and 0.86 in a subset of the test cohort who reported recovery. Our findings suggest that monitoring COVID-19 evolution via longitudinal audio data has potential in the tracking of individuals' disease progression and recovery.

medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.09.16.21263684


Summary Background The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed the respiratory isolation capacity in hospitals; many wards lacking high-frequency air changes have been repurposed for managing patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 requiring either standard or intensive care. Hospital-acquired COVID-19 is a recognised problem amongst both patients and staff, with growing evidence for the relevance of airborne transmission. This study examined the effect of air filtration and ultra-violet (UV) light sterilisation on detectable airborne SARS-CoV-2 and other microbial bioaerosols. Methods We conducted a crossover study of portable air filtration and sterilisation devices in a repurposed ‘surge’ COVID ward and ‘surge’ ICU. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) cyclonic aerosol samplers and PCR assays were used to detect the presence of airborne SARS-CoV-2 and other microbial bioaerosol with and without air/UV filtration. Results Airborne SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the ward on all five days before activation of air/UV filtration, but on none of the five days when the air/UV filter was operational; SARS-CoV-2 was again detected on four out of five days when the filter was off. Airborne SARS-CoV-2 was infrequently detected in the ICU. Filtration significantly reduced the burden of other microbial bioaerosols in both the ward (48 pathogens detected before filtration, two after, p =0.05) and the ICU (45 pathogens detected before filtration, five after p =0.05). Conclusions These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing SARS-CoV-2 from the air of repurposed ‘surge’ wards and suggest that air filtration devices may help reduce the risk of hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2. Funding Wellcome Trust, MRC, NIHR

arxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2106.15523v1


Researchers have been battling with the question of how we can identify Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases efficiently, affordably and at scale. Recent work has shown how audio based approaches, which collect respiratory audio data (cough, breathing and voice) can be used for testing, however there is a lack of exploration of how biases and methodological decisions impact these tools' performance in practice. In this paper, we explore the realistic performance of audio-based digital testing of COVID-19. To investigate this, we collected a large crowdsourced respiratory audio dataset through a mobile app, alongside recent COVID-19 test result and symptoms intended as a ground truth. Within the collected dataset, we selected 5,240 samples from 2,478 participants and split them into different participant-independent sets for model development and validation. Among these, we controlled for potential confounding factors (such as demographics and language). The unbiased model takes features extracted from breathing, coughs, and voice signals as predictors and yields an AUC-ROC of 0.71 (95\% CI: 0.65$-$0.77). We further explore different unbalanced distributions to show how biases and participant splits affect performance. Finally, we discuss how the realistic model presented could be integrated in clinical practice to realize continuous, ubiquitous, sustainable and affordable testing at population scale.

Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19
researchsquare; 2020.


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is currently responsible for over 500 thousand deaths in 216 countries across the world and is affecting over 10 million people. The absence of FDA approved drugs against the new SARS-CoV-2 virus has highlighted an urgent need to design new drugs. We developed an integrated model of the human cell and the SARS-CoV-2 virus to provide insight into the pathogenetic mechanism of the virus and to support current therapeutic strategies. We show the biochemical reactions required for the growth and general maintenance of the human cell, first of all, in its healthy state. We then demonstrate how the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the human cell causes biochemical and structural changes, leading to a change of cell functions or cell death. We have completed a comparative analysis of our model and other previously generated cell type models and highlight 48 pathways and over 800 reactions hijacked by the virus for its replication and survival. We designed a new tool which predicts 15 unique reactions as drug targets from our models (the integrated human macrophage, human airway epithelial cells and the SARS-CoV-2 virus) and provide a platform for future studies on viral entry inhibition and drug optimisation strategies.