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EBioMedicine ; 80: 104077, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867076


BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 is associated with a high circulating level of calprotectin, the S100A8/S100A9 alarmin heterodimer. Baseline calprotectin amount measured in peripheral blood at diagnosis correlates with disease severity. The optimal use of this biomarker along COVID-19 course remains to be delineated. METHODS: We focused on patients with a WHO-defined moderate COVID-19 requiring hospitalization in a medical ward. We collected plasma and serum from three independent cohorts (N = 626 patients) and measured calprotectin amount at admission. We performed longitudinal measures of calprotectin in 457 of these patients (1461 samples) and used a joint latent class mixture model in which classes were defined by age, body mass index and comorbidities to identify calprotectin trajectories predicting the risk of transfer into an intensive care unit or death. FINDINGS: After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and comorbidities, the predictive value of baseline calprotectin in patients with moderate COVID19 could be refined by serial monitoring of the biomarker. We discriminated three calprotectin trajectories associated with low, moderate, and high risk of poor outcome, and we designed an algorithm available as online software ( to monitor the probability of a poor outcome in individual patients with moderate COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: These results emphasize the clinical interest of serial monitoring of calprotectin amount in the peripheral blood to anticipate the risk of poor outcomes in patients with moderate COVID-19 hospitalized in a standard care unit. FUNDING: The study received support (research grants) from ThermoFisher immunodiagnostics (France) and Gustave Roussy Foundation.

COVID-19 , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/blood , Severity of Illness Index
Nat Immunol ; 22(3): 322-335, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060966


Immune system dysfunction is paramount in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and fatality rate. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells involved in mucosal immunity and protection against viral infections. Here, we studied the immune cell landscape, with emphasis on MAIT cells, in cohorts totaling 208 patients with various stages of disease. MAIT cell frequency is strongly reduced in blood. They display a strong activated and cytotoxic phenotype that is more pronounced in lungs. Blood MAIT cell alterations positively correlate with the activation of other innate cells, proinflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin (IL)-18, and with the severity and mortality of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We also identified a monocyte/macrophage interferon (IFN)-α-IL-18 cytokine shift and the ability of infected macrophages to induce the cytotoxicity of MAIT cells in an MR1-dependent manner. Together, our results suggest that altered MAIT cell functions due to IFN-α-IL-18 imbalance contribute to disease severity, and their therapeutic manipulation may prevent deleterious inflammation in COVID-19 aggravation.

COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Interleukin-18/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Female , France , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-15/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Vero Cells , Young Adult
Cell ; 182(6): 1401-1418.e18, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694669


Blood myeloid cells are known to be dysregulated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2. It is unknown whether the innate myeloid response differs with disease severity and whether markers of innate immunity discriminate high-risk patients. Thus, we performed high-dimensional flow cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing of COVID-19 patient peripheral blood cells and detected disappearance of non-classical CD14LowCD16High monocytes, accumulation of HLA-DRLow classical monocytes (Human Leukocyte Antigen - DR isotype), and release of massive amounts of calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) in severe cases. Immature CD10LowCD101-CXCR4+/- neutrophils with an immunosuppressive profile accumulated in the blood and lungs, suggesting emergency myelopoiesis. Finally, we show that calprotectin plasma level and a routine flow cytometry assay detecting decreased frequencies of non-classical monocytes could discriminate patients who develop a severe form of COVID-19, suggesting a predictive value that deserves prospective evaluation.

Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Monocytes , Myeloid Cells , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2