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1.
Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) ; 28(15), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837001

ABSTRACT

A unique DNA aptamer, denoted MSA52, displays universally high affinity for the spike proteins of the wild‐type SARS‐CoV‐2 as well as its Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Kappa, Delta and Omicron variants. This aptamer also recognizes pseudotyped lentiviruses expressing eight different spike proteins of SARS‐CoV‐2 with very high affinity, exhibiting dissociation constants (Kd) of 20–50 pM for these viruses. More information can be found in the Research Article by J. D. Brennan, Y. Li et al. (DOI: 10.1002/chem.202200078).

2.
Chemistry ; 28(15): e202200524, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750335

ABSTRACT

Invited for the cover of this issue are John Brennan, Yingfu Li, and co-workers at McMaster University. The image depicts MSA52 as a universal DNA aptamer that recognizes spike proteins of diverse SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.202200078.

4.
Cell ; 185(5): 896-915.e19, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670278

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) threaten the effectiveness of current COVID-19 vaccines administered intramuscularly and designed to only target the spike protein. There is a pressing need to develop next-generation vaccine strategies for broader and long-lasting protection. Using adenoviral vectors (Ad) of human and chimpanzee origin, we evaluated Ad-vectored trivalent COVID-19 vaccines expressing spike-1, nucleocapsid, and RdRp antigens in murine models. We show that single-dose intranasal immunization, particularly with chimpanzee Ad-vectored vaccine, is superior to intramuscular immunization in induction of the tripartite protective immunity consisting of local and systemic antibody responses, mucosal tissue-resident memory T cells and mucosal trained innate immunity. We further show that intranasal immunization provides protection against both the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and two VOC, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Our findings indicate that respiratory mucosal delivery of Ad-vectored multivalent vaccine represents an effective next-generation COVID-19 vaccine strategy to induce all-around mucosal immunity against current and future VOC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Mucosal , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Pan troglodytes , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
5.
Chemistry ; 28(15): e202200078, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653193

ABSTRACT

We report on a unique DNA aptamer, denoted MSA52, that displays universally high affinity for the spike proteins of wildtype SARS-CoV-2 as well as the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Kappa, Delta and Omicron variants. Using an aptamer pool produced from round 13 of selection against the S1 domain of the wildtype spike protein, we carried out one-round SELEX experiments using five different trimeric spike proteins from variants, followed by high-throughput sequencing and sequence alignment analysis of aptamers that formed complexes with all proteins. A previously unidentified aptamer, MSA52, showed Kd values ranging from 2 to 10 nM for all variant spike proteins, and also bound similarly to variants not present in the reselection experiments. This aptamer also recognized pseudotyped lentiviruses (PL) expressing eight different spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 with Kd values between 20 and 50 pM, and was integrated into a simple colorimetric assay for detection of multiple PL variants. This discovery provides evidence that aptamers can be generated with high affinity to multiple variants of a single protein, including emerging variants, making it well-suited for molecular recognition of rapidly evolving targets such as those found in SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Aptamers, Nucleotide/genetics , Aptamers, Nucleotide/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Angewandte Chemie ; 133(45):24468-24476, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1482111

ABSTRACT

We report a simple and rapid saliva‐based SARS‐CoV‐2 antigen test that utilizes a newly developed dimeric DNA aptamer, denoted as DSA1N5, that specifically recognizes the spike proteins of the wildtype virus and its Alpha and Delta variants with dissociation constants of 120, 290 and 480 pM, respectively, and binds pseudotyped lentiviruses expressing the wildtype and alpha trimeric spike proteins with affinity constants of 2.1 pM and 2.3 pM, respectively. To develop a highly sensitive test, DSA1N5 was immobilized onto gold electrodes to produce an electrochemical impedance sensor, which was capable of detecting 1000 viral particles per mL in 1:1 diluted saliva in under 10 min without any further sample processing. Evaluation of 36 positive and 37 negative patient saliva samples produced a clinical sensitivity of 80.5 % and specificity of 100 % and the sensor could detect the wildtype virus as well as the Alpha and Delta variants in the patient samples, which is the first reported rapid test that can detect any emerging variant of SARS‐CoV‐2.

7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7267-7279, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298981

ABSTRACT

We performed in vitro selection experiments to identify DNA aptamers for the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1 protein). Using a pool of pre-structured random DNA sequences, we obtained over 100 candidate aptamers after 13 cycles of enrichment under progressively more stringent selection pressure. The top 10 sequences all exhibited strong binding to the S1 protein. Two aptamers, named MSA1 (Kd = 1.8 nM) and MSA5 (Kd = 2.7 nM), were assessed for binding to the heat-treated S1 protein, untreated S1 protein spiked into 50% human saliva and the trimeric spike protein of both the wildtype and the B.1.1.7 variant, demonstrating comparable affinities in all cases. MSA1 and MSA5 also recognized the pseudotyped lentivirus of SARS-CoV-2 with respective Kd values of 22.7 pM and 11.8 pM. Secondary structure prediction and sequence truncation experiments revealed that both MSA1 and MSA5 adopted a hairpin structure, which was the motif pre-designed into the original library. A colorimetric sandwich assay was developed using MSA1 as both the recognition element and detection element, which was capable of detecting the pseudotyped lentivirus in 50% saliva with a limit of detection of 400 fM, confirming the potential of these aptamers as diagnostic tools for COVID-19 detection.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19/virology , Gene Library , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/genetics , Base Pairing , Base Sequence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , SELEX Aptamer Technique
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285962

ABSTRACT

IgA is the second most abundant antibody present in circulation and is enriched at mucosal surfaces. As such, IgA plays a key role in protection against a variety of mucosal pathogens including viruses. In addition to neutralizing viruses directly, IgA can also stimulate Fc-dependent effector functions via engagement of Fc alpha receptors (Fc-αRI) expressed on the surface of certain immune effector cells. Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte, express Fc-αRI, and are often the first to respond to sites of injury and infection. Here, we describe a function for IgA-virus immune complexes (ICs) during viral infections. We show that IgA-virus ICs potentiate NETosis-the programmed cell-death pathway through which neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Mechanistically, IgA-virus ICs potentiated a suicidal NETosis pathway via engagement of Fc-αRI on neutrophils through a toll-like receptor-independent, NADPH oxidase complex-dependent pathway. NETs also were capable of trapping and inactivating viruses, consistent with an antiviral function.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Complex/immunology , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/virology , Humans , Influenzavirus A/immunology , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Virion
9.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194709

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While detection of SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) is currently used to diagnose acute COVID-19 infection, serological assays are needed to study the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (Ig)G/A/M antibodies against spike (S) protein and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) were characterized in recovered subjects who were RT-PCR-positive (n = 153) and RT-PCR-negative (n = 55) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These antibodies were also further assessed for their ability to neutralize live SARS-CoV-2 virus. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 90.9% of resolved subjects up to 180 days post-symptom onset. Anti-S protein and anti-RBD IgG titers correlated (r = 0.5157 and r = 0.6010, respectively) with viral neutralization. Of the RT-PCR-positive subjects, 22 (14.3%) did not have anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; and of those, 17 had RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values > 27. These high Ct values raise the possibility that these indeterminate results are from individuals who were not infected or had mild infection that failed to elicit an antibody response. This study highlights the importance of serological surveys to determine population-level immunity based on infection numbers as determined by RT-PCR.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
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