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Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8851736, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140379


PURPOSE: This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence of pulmonary artery filling defects (PAFDs) consistent with pulmonary artery embolism (PAE) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and at investigating possible radiological or clinical predictors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiographies (CTPAs) from 43 consecutive patients with a confirmed COVID-19 infection were retrospectively reviewed, taking into consideration the revised Geneva score and the D-dimer value for each patient. Filling defects within the pulmonary arteries were recorded along with pleural and parenchymal findings such as ground glass opacities, consolidation, crazy paving, linear consolidation, and pleural effusion. All these variables were compared between patients with and without PAFD. The predictive performance of statistically different parameters was investigated using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC). RESULTS: Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 15/43 patients (35%), whereas CTPA and parenchymal changes related to pulmonary COVID-19 disease were evident in 39/43 patients (91%). The revised Geneva score and the mean D-dimer value obtained using two consecutive measurements were significantly higher in patients with PAFD. The ROC analysis demonstrated that a mean D-dimer value is the parameter with the higher predictivity (AUC 0.831) that is a cut-off value > 1800 µg/l which predicts the probability of PAFD with a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 78%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This single centre retrospective report shows a high prevalence of pulmonary artery filling defects revealed using CTPA in COVID-19 patients and demonstrates that the mean value of multiple D-dimer measurements may represent a predicting factor of this complication.

COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
Chem Senses ; 45(9): 875-881, 2020 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842307


The purpose of our cohort study was to quantify olfactory deficits in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using Sniffin' Sticks and a pre-post design to evaluate olfactory recovery. Thirty adult patients with laboratory-confirmed mild to moderate forms of COVID-19 underwent a quantitative olfactory test performed with the Sniffin' Sticks test (SST; Burghardt, Wedel, Germany), considering olfactory threshold (T), odor discrimination (D), and odor identification (I). Results were presented as a composite TDI score (range 1-48) that used to define functional anosmia (TDI ≤ 16.5), hyposmia (16.5 < TDI < 30.5), or functionally normal ability to smell (TDI ≥ 30.5). Patients also self-evaluated their olfactory function by rating their ability to smell on a visual analogue scale (Visual Analog Scale rating) and answering a validated Italian questionnaire (Hyposmia Rating Scale). Patients were tested during hospitalization and about 2 months after symptoms onset. During the hospitalization, the overall TDI score indicated that our cohort had impairments in their olfactory ability (10% was diagnosed with anosmia and more than 50% were hyposmic). Almost all patients showed a significant improvement at around 1 month following the first test and for all the parts of the SST except for odor identification. None of the subjects at 1 month was still diagnosed with anosmia. We also quantified the improvement in the TDI score based on initial diagnosis. Anosmic subjects showed a greater improvement than hyposmic and normosmic subjects. In conclusion, within a month time window and 2 months after symptoms' onset, in our cohort of patients we observed a substantial improvement in the olfactory abilities.

COVID-19/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Sensory Thresholds/physiology , Adult , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Smell/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires