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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674685

ABSTRACT

Evidence on social determinants of health on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and adverse outcomes is still limited. Therefore, this work investigates educational disparities in the incidence of infection and mortality within 30 days of the onset of infection during 2020 in Rome, with particular attention to changes in socioeconomic inequalities over time. A cohort of 1,538,231 residents in Rome on 1 January 2020, aged 35+, followed from 1 March to 31 December 2020, were considered. Cumulative incidence and mortality rates by education were estimated. Multivariable log-binomial and Cox regression models were used to investigate educational disparities in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality during the entire study period and in three phases of the pandemic. During 2020, there were 47,736 incident cases and 2281 deaths. The association between education and the incidence of infection changed over time. Till May 2020, low- and medium-educated individuals had a lower risk of infection than that of the highly educated. However, there was no evidence of an association between education and the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the summer. Lastly, low-educated adults had a 25% higher risk of infection from September to December than that of the highly educated. Similarly, there was substantial evidence of educational inequalities in mortality within 30 days of the onset of infection in the last term of 2020. In Rome, social inequalities in COVID-19 appeared in the last term of 2020, and they strengthen the need for monitoring inequalities emerging from this pandemic.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(24)2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572524

ABSTRACT

Patients with end-stage kidney disease represent a frail population and might be at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Lazio Regional Dialysis and Transplant Registry collected information on dialysis patients with a positive swab. The study investigated incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, mortality and their potential associated factors in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in the Lazio region. Method: The occurrence of infection was assessed among MHD patients included in the RRDTL from 1 March to 30 November 2020. The adjusted cumulative incidence of infection and mortality risk within 30 days of infection onset were estimated. Logistic and Cox regression models were applied to identify factors associated with infection and mortality, respectively. Results: The MHD cohort counted 4942 patients; 256 (5.2%) had COVID-19. The adjusted cumulative incidence was 5.1%. Factors associated with infection included: being born abroad, educational level, cystic renal disease/familial nephropathy, vascular disease and being treated in a dialysis center located in Local Health Authority (LHA) Rome 2. Among infected patients, 59 (23.0%) died within 30 days; the adjusted mortality risk was 21.0%. Factors associated with 30-day mortality included: age, malnutrition and fever at the time of swab. Conclusions: Factors associated with infection seem to reflect socioeconomic conditions. Factors associated with mortality, in addition to age, are related to clinical characteristics and symptoms at the time of swab.

3.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 88-94, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068127

ABSTRACT

We are presenting here the findings of the reaction to the COVID-19 epidemic during the period March to June 2020 of those centres participating in the research EASY-NET which is on-going in Italy, funded by the Ministry of Health and co-founded by the Regional Health Authorities. The objective of EASY-NET is to evaluate the effectiveness of the audit and feedback (A&F) strategies in different clinical and organizational settings in seven regions. As a negative consequence of the COVID-19 epidemic, the activities of the project have suddenly slowed down; nevertheless, the COVID-19 epidemic represented an opportunity to apply the A&F methodology and support the healthcare within the regional authorities in order to manage and monitor the impact of this new disease. The reaction to the crisis on behalf of EASY-NET was inconsistent across the participating regions for various reasons. Factors which influenced the reaction levels in relation to the rapidity and efficiency of the implementation of the A&F strategies were as follows: the varying epidemiological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic in the various territories, the different clinical and organizational context and availability of expert research teams together with A&F procedures which had already been tested before the start of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Formative Feedback , Management Audit , Pandemics , Quality Assurance, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Critical Pathways , Emergencies/epidemiology , Geography, Medical , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Quality Improvement
4.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 51-59, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the Covid-19 pandemic has provoked a huge of clinical and epidemiological research initiatives, especially in the most involved countries. However, this very large effort was characterized by several methodological weaknesses, both in the field of discovering effective treatments (with too many small and uncontrolled trials) and in the field of identifying preventable risks and prognostic factors (with too few large, representative and well-designed cohorts or case-control studies). OBJECTIVES: in response to the fragmented and uncoordinated research production on Covid-19, the   italian Association of Epidemiology (AIE) stimulated the formation of a working group (WG) with the aims of identifying the most important gaps in knowledge and to propose a structured research agenda of clinical and epidemiological studies considered at high priority on Covid-19, including recommendations on the preferable methodology. METHODS: the WG was composed by 25 subjects, mainly epidemiologists, statisticians, and other experts in specific fields, who have voluntarily agreed to the proposal. The agreement on a list of main research questions and on the structure of the specific documents to be produced were defined through few meetings and cycles of document exchanges. RESULTS: twelve main research questions on Covid-19 were identified, covering aetiology, prognosis, interventions, follow-up and impact on general and specific populations (children, pregnant women). For each of them, a two-page form was developed, structured in: background, main topics, methods (with recommendations on preferred study design and warnings for bias prevention) and an essential bibliography. CONCLUSIONS: this research agenda represents an initial contribution to direct clinical and epidemiological research efforts on high priority topics with a focus on methodological aspects. Further development and refinements of this agenda by Public Health Authorities are encouraged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Research Design , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Epidemiology/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prognosis , Societies, Scientific , Therapeutic Equipoise
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