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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 995382, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080298

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant women, especially those with comorbidities, compared to those non-pregnant, have higher risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. However, COVID-19 vaccine uptake is very low among them. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was administered to randomly selected women 18 years of age that were currently pregnant or had just given birth between September 2021 and May 2022 in the geographic area of Naples. Vaccine hesitancy was assessed using the vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS). Results: A total of 385 women participated. Women who had not been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and who needed information about vaccination against COVID-19 had a higher perceived risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2. More than half (54.3%) of the women were very afraid of the potential side effects of the COVID-19 vaccination on the fetus. There was higher concern of the side effects of the vaccine on the fetus among those who did not have a graduate degree, those with high-risk pregnancy, those who had not been infected by SARS-CoV-2, those who were more concerned that they could be infected by SARS-CoV-2, those who did not know that this vaccination was recommended for them, and those trusting mass media/internet/social networks for information. Only 21.3% were vaccinated when pregnant, mostly women with a university degree, those who had been infected by SARS-CoV-2 before pregnancy, those who did not need information, and those who acquired information about the vaccination from gynecologists. Almost three-quarters (71.9%) were willing to receive the vaccination and those more likely were those with a university degree, those who have had at least one relative/cohabitant partner/friend who had been infected by SARS-CoV-2, those who were more concerned that they could be infected by SARS-CoV-2, and those who were not extremely concerned of the side effects of the vaccine on the fetus. A total of 86.4% were highly hesitant. Highly hesitant were respondents who did not get a graduate degree, those less concerned that they could be infected by SARS-CoV-2, and those trusting mass media/internet/social networks for information. Conclusion: Public health efforts and education campaigns for pregnant women are needed for changing their perception patterns and for supporting gynecologists in promoting the uptake of this vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Vaccination Hesitancy , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pregnant Women/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent
2.
Vaccine ; 40(39): 5726-5731, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004586

ABSTRACT

In the present study, immunogenicity data in 61 vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs) either infection naïve (naïve HCWs) or with infection of Delta and/or Omicron COVID-19 (experienced HCWs) were evaluated up to 270 days after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine and up to 90 days after a booster dose. A decrease in antibody levels at 270 days following administration of the second dose (p = 0.0335) was observed, although values did not fall below the positivity threshold (33.8 BAU/ml). After booster vaccination, antibody levels increased after 30 days (p = 0.0486), with much higher values than after first and second vaccination. Antibody levels then decreased at 60 and 90 days after the booster dose. A comparison between mean antibody levels of naïve and experienced HCWs revealed higher values in experienced HCWs, resulting from both natural and vaccination-induced immunity. A total of 14.7% of HCWs contracted the Omicron virus variant after the vaccine booster, although none showed severe symptoms. These results support that a booster dose results in a marked increase in antibody response that subsequently decreases over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 949693, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002496

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate why parents decide to vaccinate, as well as the determinants, their children aged 5-11 years against COVID-19 in Italy. Methods: The survey was conducted from January through May 2022. All parents/guardians who came in randomly selected days to immunization centers for the administration of the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine to their child were asked to complete a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes toward COVID-19 infection and vaccination, reason(s) regarding their decision to vaccinate their child, and source(s) of information. Results: A total of 358 questionnaires were collected. Parent's perception that COVID-19 is a severe illness for the child, assessed using a 10-point Likert scale, was 7.5. The overall mean scores of the risk perception for their child of having the COVID-19 before and after the vaccination were 8.1 and 6.3. A significantly higher parents' level of risk perception for their child of having the COVID-19 after the vaccination has been observed among those not having a university degree, those with the child having at least one chronic medical condition, and those who perceived that COVID-19 is a severe illness for the child. The mean value of respondent trust in the information provided by the pediatricians on a 10-point scale Likert type was 7.6. Female, not having a university degree, higher perception that COVID-19 is a severe disease, not having received information about the vaccination from pediatricians, and needing information had a significantly higher concern of side effects after the vaccination. The most common reasons for vaccinating their children included wanting to protect the child against COVID-19, to attend the school with less risk, to prevent the transmission to family members, and to practice sport and other activities with less risks. Participants with a university degree were more likely to have vaccinated their child for attending the school and practicing sport and other activities with less risks. Conclusions: More publicity should be promoted among parents of children aged 5-11 years which would increase the coverage rates and thus lower the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and reduce the occurrence of COVID-19.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855852

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the survey were to explore any changes in the adherence to the three main COVID-19 preventive measures (social distancing, washing hands, wearing face-masks) among 795 individuals who received the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose in Italy and to identify the predictors associated. The concern of contracting COVID-19 before the vaccination, after the primary COVID-19 vaccine series, and after the booster dose resulted with a mean value of 7.7, 4.6, and 4.2, respectively. Females, those who had a lower mean self-perceived health status, who perceived COVID-19 as a very serious health problem, who decided to receive the booster dose because they perceived to be at risk of getting COVID-19, and who expressed interest in acquiring more information regarding the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose were more likely to report a higher concern of contracting COVID-19 after the booster dose. Over two-thirds were willing to respect the three main COVID-19 preventive measures following the booster dose. The multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that those who had used all three main preventive measures before and after the second or single dose were less likely to perceive COVID-19 as a serious illness. Those who had used them irregularly were less likely to have used official government organizations and scientific journals as sources of information. This survey provided an understanding regarding the adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures that may help to target policy interventions needed to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760852

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination has been extended to include children aged 5-11 years. This cross-sectional survey evaluated parental COVID-19 vaccine willingness and hesitancy, and associated factors, for their children aged 5-11 years with chronic conditions. A telephone survey was conducted from 14 December 2021 to 4 January 2022. The questionnaire assessed participants' socio-demographic and health-related information, attitudes towards COVID-19 infection, hesitancy, by using the PACV-5 (Parent Attitudes About Childhood Vaccines Survey Tool), and sources of information. A total of 430 answers were collected anonymously. Respondents with no cohabitant who had been infected by SARS-CoV-2 and having been vaccinated against COVID-19 had a higher concern about the severity of COVID-19. The parents' perceived risk that the child could be infected by SARS-CoV-2 was higher in those more concerned about the severity of COVID-19, with an older child, and who had at least one cohabitant positive for COVID-19. Only 38.8% parents were willing to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Parents who did not need additional information, those with higher education, those who have been vaccinated against COVID-19, those whose child was older, who had received information on this vaccination from physicians, with higher self-reported concern about the severity of COVID-19, and who had a higher perceived risk that their child could be infected by SARS-CoV-2, expressed a greater willingness to vaccinate their child. Overall, 26.3% were high-hesitant, with a PACV-5 score ≥ 7. Respondents who did not get the COVID-19 vaccine, were less educated, with a lower concern about severity of COVID-19, and with a lower perceived risk that their child could be infected by SARS-CoV-2, were more likely to be high-hesitant. New policies and educational programs regarding COVID-19 vaccination for children with chronic conditions are needed to reduce hesitancy and increase vaccination uptake.

6.
J Clin Virol ; 146: 105057, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638778

ABSTRACT

It is well-known that the Coronavirus Disease 2019, which is caused by the beta-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in December 2019 followed by an outbreak first reported in Wuhan, China. Thus far, vaccination appears to be the only way to bring the pandemic to an end. In the present study, immunogenicity data was evaluated using LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay (DiaSorin S.p.A) among a sample of 52 vaccinated healthcare workers, five of whom were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 47 who were seronegative, over a time span of ≤90 days following the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. The test detects antibodies against the Trimeric complex (S1, S2 and receptor binding domain). The overall mean value of the serum levels of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 30 days following the second dose of the vaccine was 1,901.8 binding arbitrary unit (BAU)/ml, after 60 days the mean value declined to 1,244.9 BAU/ml. The antibody levels then reached a plateau, as confirmed by the antibody test carried out 90 days following the second dose, which revealed a mean value of 1,032.4 BAU/ml (P<0.0001). A higher level was observed at all three times in male subjects compared with female subjects, and in younger male participants compared with female participants, although these differences did not reach a statistically significant level. Similarly, no significant difference was found in antibody values at different times according to age. After the second dose of the vaccine, two subjects were infected with SARS-CoV-2, and an increase in antibody values in the third assay was observed in both individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Preliminary Data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502543

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the cross-sectional study were to measure how behaviors and attitudes about preventive measures toward COVID-19 changed over time among Italian vaccinated healthcare workers and university students, and the associated characteristics. The study was carried out between February and March 2021 in the city of Naples, Campania region, Southern Italy. The perceived personal risk of being infected by SARS-CoV-2 after the vaccination was significantly higher among males, in those having a higher perceived personal risk of being infected by SARS-CoV-2 before the vaccination, and in those who were more concerned about the efficacy of the vaccination. The fear of getting the disease as reason to have the COVID-19 vaccination was reported more frequently in younger participants, in those with at least one chronic medical condition, in those with a higher concern about the severity of COVID-19, in those with a higher level of trust in the information received, and in those who acquired information from scientific journals. Overall, 21.3% were willing to engage the three main public health measures (wearing a mask, careful hand washing, physical distancing) after receiving the second dose of the vaccination compared to the behavior before the pandemic began. This willingness was predicted by a higher level of trust in the information received and by a lower self-rated health status. Only 0.1% of participants were willing to engage all three measures after receiving the second dose of the vaccination compared to the behavior before receiving the first dose. These findings are useful in order to develop information strategies regarding vaccine safety and efficacy and the importance of public health measures against COVID-19.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289037

ABSTRACT

Understanding the potential impact of COVID-19 on receiving influenza vaccination among healthcare workers (HCWs) is of utmost importance. The purposes of the present cross-sectional study were to describe the characteristics and to explore the predictors of receiving influenza vaccination among a large cohort of Italian HCWs in hospital settings. Information was collected through an anonymous questionnaire from December 2020 through January 2021. General and practice characteristics, perceived risk of seasonal influenza, attitudes towards efficacy and safety of influenza vaccination, and reasons behind the decision to be vaccinated against influenza were explored. Fewer than half (46.2%) of HCWs agreed that influenza is a serious illness and perceived the risk of getting infected with influenza, and concerns about the safety of the vaccination were significant positive predictors. Fewer than half of the respondents were not concerned at all about the efficacy (48.6%) and safety (49.8%) of influenza vaccination, and 51.9% reported that they have not received a seasonal influenza vaccine during the previous season. The most mentioned reason for receiving the influenza vaccine in the current season was that influenza and COVID-19 share some similar symptoms. Study results will aid policymakers in developing vaccination education programs, promotion of trust to address negative misconceptions, and to achieve future high coverage among this high-risk group.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a Southern Italian population. METHODS: The study was performed among students and workers of the University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" and the relative Teaching Hospital. Participants were invited to undergo a blood sampling, an interview or to complete a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 140 participants (5.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Positive SARS-CoV-2 test results increased significantly during the months of testing, and those who had had at least one symptom among fever, cough, dyspnea, loss of taste or smell and who had had contact with a family member/cohabitant with confirmed COVID-19 were more likely to test positive. Faculty members were less likely to have a positive test result compared to the healthcare workers (HCWs). Among HCWs, physicians showed the lowest rate of seroconversion (5.2%) compared to nurses (8.9%) and other categories (10%). Nurses and other HCWs compared to the physicians, those who had had at least one symptom among fever, cough, dyspnea, loss of taste or smell, and who had had contact with a family member/cohabitant with confirmed COVID-19 were more likely to test positive. CONCLUSIONS: The results have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection is rapidly spreading even in Southern Italy and confirm the substantial role of seroprevalence studies for the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection circulation and potential for further spreading.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Health Personnel , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158402

ABSTRACT

Understanding whether members of the university population are willing to receive a future vaccination against COVID-19 and identifying barriers may help public health authorities to develop effective strategies and interventions to contain COVID-19. This cross-sectional study explored the willingness to accept a future SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in a university population in Southern Italy. The perceived risk level of developing COVID-19 was 6.5 and it was significantly higher among females, younger subjects, and those who agreed/strongly agreed that COVID-19 is a severe disease. Only 21.4% of respondents were not worried at all regarding the safety of the vaccine. Males, not being married/cohabitant, being a faculty member, those who perceived a lower risk of developing COVID-19, and those who did not need information regarding the vaccination against COVID-19 were significantly more likely to have no concern at all regarding the safety of the vaccine. The vast majority (84.1%) were willing to receive a future vaccine against COVID-19. Almost coherently with predictors of concern on the safety of the vaccine, being male, not being married/cohabitant, being a faculty member, not being concerned at all that COVID-19 vaccination might not be safe, and agreeing that COVID-19 can have serious health consequences were significant predictors of the willingness to receive the vaccine against COVID-19. A considerable proportion of the population had a positive willingness to receive the future COVID-19 vaccine, although some concerns have been expressed regarding the effectiveness and safety and public health activities seem necessary to achieve the rate that can lead to the protection of the community.

13.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 4501-4507, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic performance of an LFA compared with an ELISA test in a cohort of HWs operating in a COVID-19 unit of a teaching hospital in southern Italy. METHODS: We performed an observational, prospective, interventional study including 65 COVID-19 unit personnel. On a total of 196 serum samples (at least 2 serum samples for each HW), LFA and ELISA tests for SARS-COV-2 IgG and IgM were performed. Also, 32 serum samples of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive patients at least 21 days before sampling, and 30 serum samples of patients obtained up to November 2019, before COVID-19 outbreak in China, were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. FINDINGS: Of the 65 HWs enrolled, 6 were positive in LFA; overall, of the 196 serum samples, 20 were positive in LFA. All ELISA tests performed on serum samples collected from HWs were negative. The specificity of LFAs was 90.77% considering the 65 HWs and 89.80% considering all the 196 health workers serum samples analyzed. Considering the data on HWs, ELISA test for SARS-COV-2 antibodies showed a specificity of 100%, including all the 196 serum samples collected, and 100% including the 65 HWs. The ELISA and LFAs performed after 21 days last COVID-19 patient was discharged were all negative. CONCLUSION: LFAs compared to ELISA tests result in less specificity, considering COVID-19 negative personnel and patients. Thus, LFAs seem to be not adequate in the active surveillance of HWs.

14.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(6):2147, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-14008

ABSTRACT

Pharmacists should be educated about travel medicine, since they could influence their own choices and those of the individuals they encounter. This study aims to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards infectious diseases related to travel among community pharmacists in Italy. The data was collected from September 2018 to September 2019 using semi-structured telephone interviews. Only 1.8% answered correctly to all seven questions regarding the infectious diseases related to travel. Community pharmacists who had heard about travel medicine and those who had received information were more likely to have good knowledge. More than two-thirds of the respondents believed that it is important to provide information to the public about travel medicine. Pharmacists who worked a higher number of hours per week, were more knowledgeable about the more frequent infectious diseases related to travel, believed that travel medicine was a pharmacist competency, believed that they could give advice to the public, and had received information from scientific journals and educational activities were more likely to have this positive attitude. More than two-thirds often/always informed the public about the importance of having travel health center counseling. Pharmacists who had heard about travel medicine and those who believed that they could give advice to the public were more likely to inform. Interventions are needed to improve knowledge in order that community pharmacists can play an active role in counseling the public.

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