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1.
Blood Adv ; 6(22): 5811-5820, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846780

ABSTRACT

Patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma and MYC rearrangement at fluorescence in situ hybridization exhibit poor outcome after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). In the last decade, 68 patients with Burkitt lymphoma ([BL] n = 46) or high-grade B-cell lymphoma ([HGBCL] single, double, or triple hit; n = 22) were treated with a dose-dense, short-term therapy termed "CARMEN regimen" at 5 Italian centers. Forty-six (68%) patients were HIV+. CARMEN included a 36-day induction with sequential, single weekly doses of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, rituximab, methotrexate, etoposide, and doxorubicin plus intrathecal chemotherapy, followed by high-dose-cytarabine-based consolidation. Patients who did not achieve complete remission (CR) after induction received BEAM (carmustina, etoposide, cytarabine, melfalan)-conditioned autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) after consolidation. Sixty-one (90%) patients completed induction, and 59 (87%) completed consolidation. Seventeen patients received ASCT. Grade 4 hematological toxicity was common but did not cause treatment discontinuation; grade 4 nonhematological toxicity was recorded in 11 (16%) patients, with grade 4 infections in 6 (9%). Six (9%) patients died of toxicity (sepsis in 4, COVID-19, acute respiratory distress syndrome). CR rate after the whole treatment was 73% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55% to 91%) for patients with HGBCL and 78% (95% CI, 66% to 90%) for patients with BL. At a median follow-up of 65 (interquartile range, 40-109) months, 48 patients remain event free, with a 5-year progression-free survival of 63% (95% CI, 58% to 68%) for HGBCL and 72% (95% CI, 71% to 73%) for BL, with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 63% (95% CI, 58% to 68%) and 76% (95% CI, 75% to 77%), respectively. HIV seropositivity did not have a detrimental effect on outcome. This retrospective study shows that CARMEN is a safe and active regimen both in HIV-negative and -positive patients with MYC-rearranged lymphomas. Encouraging survival figures, attained with a single dose of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, deserve further investigation in HGBCL and other aggressive lymphomas.


Subject(s)
Burkitt Lymphoma , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma , Humans , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Vincristine/adverse effects , Etoposide/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Transplantation, Autologous , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/adverse effects , Burkitt Lymphoma/drug therapy , Burkitt Lymphoma/genetics , Doxorubicin/adverse effects , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Lymphoma/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy
2.
Minerva Med ; 113(2): 281-290, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of continuous positive airway pressure and respiratory physiotherapy outside the Intensive Care Unit during a pandemic. METHODS: In this cohort study performed in February-May 2020 in a large teaching hospital in Milan, COVID-19 patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome receiving continuous positive airway pressure (positive end-expiratory pressure =10 cm H2O, FiO2=0.6, daily treatment duration: 4×3h-cycles) and respiratory physiotherapy including pronation outside the Intensive Care Unit were followed-up. RESULTS: Of 90 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (45/90, 50% pronated at least once) outside the Intensive Care Unit and with a median (interquartile) follow-up of 37 (11-46) days, 45 (50%) were discharged at home, 28 (31%) were still hospitalized, and 17 (19%) died. Continuous positive airway pressure failure was recorded for 35 (39%) patients. Patient mobilization was associated with reduced failure rates (P=0.033). No safety issues were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous positive airway pressure with patient mobilization (including pronation) was effective and safe in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 managed outside the Intensive Care Unit setting during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pronation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
5.
Blood Purif ; 50(1): 102-109, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no information on acute kidney injury (AKI) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) among invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Western healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and outcome of AKI and CRRT among invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Observational study in a tertiary care hospital in Milan, Italy. RESULTS: Among 99 patients, 72 (75.0%) developed AKI and 17 (17.7%) received CRRT. Most of the patients developed stage 1 AKI (33 [45.8%]), while 15 (20.8%) developed stage 2 AKI and 24 (33.4%) a stage 3 AKI. Patients who developed AKI or needed CRRT at latest follow-up were older, and among CRRT treated patients a greater proportion had preexisting CKD. Hospital mortality was 38.9% for AKI and 52.9% for CRRT patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients, AKI is very common and CRRT use is common. Both carry a high risk of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical
6.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(8): e465-e473, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation is high. We aimed to examine whether mavrilimumab, an anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-α monoclonal antibody, added to standard management, improves clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation. METHODS: This single-centre prospective cohort study included patients aged 18 years or older who were admitted to San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, hypoxia, and systemic hyperinflammation. Patients received a single intravenous dose (6 mg/kg) of mavrilimumab added to standard care given by the hospital at the time. The control group consisted of contemporaneous patients with similar baseline characteristics who received standard care at the same hospital. The main outcome was time to clinical improvement (defined as improvement of two or more points on the seven-point ordinal scale of clinical status). Other outcomes included proportion of patients achieving clinical improvement, survival, mechanical ventilation-free survival, and time to fever resolution. Adverse events were monitored daily. FINDINGS: Between March 17 and April 15, 2020, 13 non-mechanically ventilated patients (median age 57 years [IQR 52-58], 12 [92%] men) received mavrilimumab and 26 patients (median age 60 [IQR 53-67], 17 [65%] men) in the control group received standard care. During the 28-day follow-up, no patients in the mavrilimumab group died, and seven (27%) patients in the control group died (p=0·086). At day 28, all patients in the mavrilimumab group and 17 (65%) patients in the control group showed clinical improvement (p=0·030), with earlier improvement in the mavrilimumab than in the control group (mean time to improvement 8 days [IQR 5 to 11] vs 19 days [11 to >28], p=0·0001). By day 28, one (8%) patient in the mavrilimumab group progressed to mechanical ventilation compared with nine (35%) patients in the control group who progressed to mechanical ventilation or died (p=0·14). By day 14, fever resolved in ten (91%) of 11 febrile patients in the mavrilimumab group, compared with 11 (61%) of 18 febrile patients in the control group (p=0·18); fever resolution was faster in mavrilimumab recipients versus controls (median time to resolution 1 day [IQR 1 to 2] vs 7 days [3 to >14], p=0·0093). Mavrilimumab was well tolerated, with no infusion reactions. Three (12%) patients in the control group developed infectious complications. INTERPRETATION: Mavrilimumab treatment was associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with standard care in non-mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation. Treatment was well tolerated. Confirmation of efficacy requires controlled testing. FUNDING: IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute.

7.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108450, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-172295

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia and is mainly based on an immune-driven pathology. Mounting evidence suggests that COVID-19 is fueled by a maladaptive host inflammatory response that involves excessive activation of innate immune pathways. While a "cytokine storm" involving IL-6 and other cytokines has been documented, complement C3 activation has been implicated as an initial effector mechanism that exacerbates lung injury in preclinical models of SARS-CoV infection. C3-targeted intervention may provide broader therapeutic control of complement-mediated inflammatory damage in COVID-19 patients. Herein, we report the clinical course of a patient with severe ARDS due to COVID-19 pneumonia who was safely and successfully treated with the compstatin-based complement C3 inhibitor AMY-101.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement C3/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/immunology , Atrial Fibrillation/pathology , Atrial Fibrillation/virology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Hypercholesterolemia/immunology , Hypercholesterolemia/pathology , Hypercholesterolemia/virology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/pathology , Hypertension/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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