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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013101, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are routinely given to children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an attempt to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Their use is still controversial and the decision to administer the intervention can vary by centre and/or by individual doctors within that centre. OBJECTIVES: This review is designed to assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic corticosteroids in children between birth and 18 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science in June 2020. We also searched four clinical trials registers and conducted backward and forward citation searching of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies of prophylactic administration of corticosteroids, including single and multiple doses, and all types of corticosteroids administered via any route and at any time-point in the perioperative period. We excluded studies if steroids were administered therapeutically. We included individually randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with two or more groups (e.g. multi-drug or dose comparisons with a control group) but not 'head-to-head' trials without a placebo or a group that did not receive corticosteroids. We included studies in children, from birth up to 18 years of age, including preterm infants, undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CPB. We also excluded studies in patients undergoing heart or lung transplantation, or both; studies in patients already receiving corticosteroids; in patients with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; and in patients given steroids at the time of cardiac surgery for indications other than cardiac surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the Covidence systematic review manager to extract and manage data for the review. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We resolved disagreements by consensus or by consultation with a third review author. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We found 3748 studies, of which 888 were duplicate records. Two studies had the same clinical trial registration number, but reported different populations and interventions. We therefore included them as separate studies. We screened titles and abstracts of 2868 records and reviewed full text reports for 84 studies to determine eligibility. We extracted data for 13 studies. Pooled analyses are based on eight studies. We reported the remaining five studies narratively due to zero events for both intervention and placebo in the outcomes of interest. Therefore, the final meta-analysis included eight studies with a combined population of 478 participants. There was a low or unclear risk of bias across the domains. There was moderate certainty of evidence that corticosteroids do not change the risk of in-hospital mortality (five RCTs; 313 participants; risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 2.07) for children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. There was high certainty of evidence that corticosteroids reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation (six RCTs; 421 participants; mean difference (MD) 11.37 hours lower, 95% CI -20.29 to -2.45) after the surgery. There was high-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) stay (six RCTs; 421 participants; MD 0.28 days lower, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.24) and moderate-certainty evidence that the intervention probably made little to no difference to the length of the postoperative hospital stay (one RCT; 176 participants; mean length of stay 22 days; MD -0.70 days, 95% CI -2.62 to 1.22). There was moderate certainty of evidence for no effect of the intervention on all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up (five RCTs; 313 participants; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.07) or cardiovascular mortality at the longest follow-up (three RCTs; 109 participants; RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.07 to 2.46). There was low certainty of evidence that corticosteroids probably make little to no difference to children separating from CPB (one RCT; 40 participants; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.92). We were unable to report information regarding adverse events of the intervention due to the heterogeneity of reporting of outcomes. We downgraded the certainty of evidence for several reasons, including imprecision due to small sample sizes, a single study providing data for an individual outcome, the inclusion of both appreciable benefit and harm in the confidence interval, and publication bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids  probably do not change the risk of mortality for children having heart surgery using CPB at any time point. They probably reduce the duration of postoperative ventilation in this context, but have little or no effect on the total length of postoperative ICU stay or total postoperative hospital stay. There was inconsistency in the adverse event outcomes reported which, consequently, could not be pooled. It is therefore impossible to provide any implications and policy-makers will be unable to make any recommendations for practice without evidence about adverse effects. The review highlighted the need for well-conducted RCTs powered for clinical outcomes to confirm or refute the effect of corticosteroids versus placebo in children having cardiac surgery with CPB. A core outcome set for adverse event reporting in the paediatric major surgery and intensive care setting is required.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Bias , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/mortality , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Heart-Lung Machine/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/etiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
2.
Perfusion ; : 2676591211029452, 2021 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lack of scientific data on the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) during the COVID-19 pandemic has made clinical decision making challenging. This survey aimed to appraise MICS activity in UK cardiac units and establish a consensus amongst front-line MICS surgeons regarding standard best MICS practise during the pandemic. METHODS: An online questionnaire was designed through the 'googleforms' platform. Responses were received from 24 out of 28 surgeons approached (85.7%), across 17 cardiac units. RESULTS: There was a strong consensus against a higher risk of conversion from minimally invasive to full sternotomy (92%; n = 22) nor there is increased infection (79%; n = 19) or bleeding (96%; n = 23) with MICS compared to full sternotomy during the pandemic. The majority of respondents (67%; n = 16) felt that it was safe to perform MICS during COVID-19, and that it should not be halted (71%; n = 17). London cardiac units experienced a decrease in MICS (60%; n = 6), whereas non-London units saw no reduction. All London MICS surgeons wore an FP3 mask compared to 62% (n = 8) of non-London MICS surgeons, 23% (n = 3) of which only wore a surgical mask. London MICS surgeons felt that routine double gloving should be done (60%; n = 6) whereas non-London MICS surgeons held a strong consensus that it should not (92%; n = 12). CONCLUSION: Whilst more robust evidence on the effect of COVID-19 on MICS is awaited, this survey provides interesting insights for clinical decision-making regarding MICS and aids to facilitate the development of standardised MICS guidelines for an effective response during future pandemics.

3.
Perfusion ; : 2676591211013730, 2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To establish the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adult cardiac surgery by reviewing current data and use this to establish methods for safely continuing to carry out surgery. METHODS: Conduction of a literature search via PubMed using the search terms: '(adult cardiac OR cardiothoracic OR surgery OR minimally invasive OR sternotomy OR hemi-sternotomy OR aortic valve OR mitral valve OR elective OR emergency) AND (COVID-19 or coronavirus OR SARS-CoV-2 OR 2019-nCoV OR 2019 novel coronavirus OR pandemic)'. Thirty-two articles were selected. RESULTS: Cardiac surgery patients have an increased risk of complications from COVID-19 and require vital finite resources such as intensive care beds, also required by COVID-19 patients. Thus reducing their admission and potential hospital-acquired infection with COVID-19 is paramount. During the peak, only emergencies such as acute aortic dissections were treated, triaging patients according to surgical priority and cancelling all elective procedures. Screening and 2-week quarantine prior to admission were essential changes, alongside additional levels of PPE. Focus was on reducing length of stay and switching to day-cases to reduce post-operative transmission risk, whilst several hospitals adopted 'hot' and 'cold' operating theatres for covid-confirmed and covid-negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: This paper suggests a 'CARDIO' approach for reintroducing elective procedures: 'Care, Assess, Re-Evaluate, Develop, Implement, Overcome'; prioritising the mental and physical health of the workforce, learning from and sharing experiences and objectively prioritising patients to improve case load.

5.
J Card Surg ; 36(8): 2913-2915, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809275
6.
J Card Surg ; 35(12): 3387-3390, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has seen the cancellation of elective cardiac surgeries worldwide. Here we report the experience of a cardiac surgery unit in a developing country in response to the COVID-19 crisis. METHODS: From 6th April to 12th June 2020, 58 patients underwent urgent or emergency cardiac surgery. Data was reviewed from a prospectively entered unit-maintained cardiac surgery database. To ensure safe delivery of care to patients, a series of strict measures were implemented which included: a parallel healthcare system maintaining a COVID-19 cold site, social isolation of patients for one to 2 weeks before surgery, polymerase chain reaction testing for COVID-19, 72 hours before surgery, discrete staff assigned only to cardiac surgical cases socially isolated for 2 weeks as necessary. RESULTS: The mean age at surgery was 59.7 ± 11 years and 41 (70.7%) were male. Fifty-two patients were hypertensive (90%), and 32 were diabetic (55.2%). There were three emergency type A aortic dissections. Forty-seven patients underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery with all but three performed off-pump. Fourteen cases required blood product transfusion. One patient had postoperative pneumonia associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The median length of stay was 5.7 ± 1.8 days. All patients were discharged home after rehabilitation. There were no cases of COVID-19 infection among healthcare workers during the study period. CONCLUSION: These strategies allowed us to maintain a service for urgent and emergency procedures and may prove useful for larger countries when there is decrease in COVID-19 cases and planning for the restart of elective cardiac surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Heart Diseases/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Comorbidity , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Trinidad and Tobago/epidemiology
8.
J Card Surg ; 35(6): 1177-1179, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116720

ABSTRACT

The current Covid-19 pandemic is a significant global health threat. The outbreak has profoundly affected all healthcare professionals, including heart surgeons. To adapt to these exceptional circumstances, cardiac surgeons had to change their practice significantly. We herein discuss the challenges and broad implications of the Covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of the heart surgeons.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Safety Management , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Female , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgeons
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