Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-934129.v1

ABSTRACT

ACE2 is a membrane protein that regulates the cardiovascular system. Additionally, ACE2 acts as a receptor for host cell infection by human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 that emerged as the cause of the on-going COVID-19 pandemic and has brought unprecedented burden to economy and health. ACE2 binds the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 with high affinity and shows little variation in amino acid sequence meaning natural resistance is rare. The discovery of a novel short ACE2 isoform (deltaACE2) provides evidence for inter-individual differences in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and severity, and likelihood of developing subsequent ‘Long COVID’. Critically, deltaACE2 loses SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding sites in the extracellular domain, and is predicted to confer reduced susceptibility to viral infection. We aimed to assess the differential expression of full-length ACE2 versus deltaACE2 in a panel of human tissues (kidney, heart, lung, and liver) that are implicated in COVID-19, and confirm ACE2 protein in these tissues. Using dual antibody staining, we show that deltaACE2 localises, and is enriched, in lung airway epithelia and bile duct epithelia in the liver. Finally, we also confirm that a fluorescently tagged SARS-CoV-2 spike protein monomer shows low binding at lung and bile duct epithelia where dACE2 is enriched.


Subject(s)
Cholestasis , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Virus Diseases , Lung Diseases , COVID-19
2.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.06.06.446781

ABSTRACT

Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry in cells through the modulation of viral host receptors, such as ACE2, could represent a new therapeutic approach complementing vaccination. However, the mechanisms controlling ACE2 expression remain elusive. Here, we identify the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) as a direct regulator of ACE2 transcription in multiple COVID19-affected tissues, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. We demonstrate that FXR antagonists, including the over-the-counter compound z-guggulsterone (ZGG) and the off-patent drug ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), downregulate ACE2 levels, and reduce susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung, cholangiocyte and gut organoids. We then show that therapeutic levels of UDCA downregulate ACE2 in human organs perfused ex situ and reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection ex vivo. Finally, we perform a retrospective study using registry data and identify a correlation between UDCA treatment and positive clinical outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection, including hospitalisation, ICU admission and death. In conclusion, we identify a novel function of FXR in controlling ACE2 expression and provide evidence that this approach could be beneficial for reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection, thereby paving the road for future clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Diseases , Death , COVID-19
3.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.22.427737

ABSTRACT

Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities are more susceptible to severe infection with SARS-CoV-2, known to directly cause pathological damage to cardiovascular tissue. We outline a screening platform using human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, confirmed to express the protein machinery critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a pseudotyped virus system. The method has allowed us to identify benztropine and DX600 as novel inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19
4.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.22.427567

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) are among the most promising approaches against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We developed a bispecific, IgG1-like molecule based on two antibodies derived from COVID-19 convalescent donors, C121 and C135. CoV-X2 simultaneously binds two independent sites on the RBD and, unlike its parental antibodies, completely prevents S binding to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the virus cellular receptor. Furthermore, CoV-X2 recognizes a broad panel of RBD variants and neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and the escape mutants generated by the single monoclonals at sub-nanomolar concentrations. In a novel model of SARS-CoV-2 infection with lung inflammation, CoV-X2 protects mice from disease and suppresses viral escape. Thus, simultaneous targeting of non-overlapping RBD epitopes by IgG-like bispecific antibodies is feasible and effective, combining into a single molecule the advantages of antibody cocktails.


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Pneumonia , COVID-19
5.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.07.07.191429

ABSTRACT

Age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome in patients following COVID-19 infection. We hypothesised that differential expression of genes encoding proteins proposed to be required for entry of SARS-Cov-2 in aged compared to younger cardiomyocytes might contribute to the susceptibility of older individuals to COVID-19-associated cardiovascular complications.We generated strand-specific RNA-sequencing libraries from RNA isolated from flow-sorted cardiomyocyte nuclei from left ventricular tissue. RNASeq data were compared between five young (19-25yr) and five older (63-78yr) Caucasian males who had not been on medication or exhibited evidence of cardiovascular disease post-mortem.Expression of relevant genes encoding ACE2, TMPRSS2, TMPRS11D, TMPRS11E, FURIN, CTSL, CTSB and B0AT1/SLC6A19 were upregulated in aged cardiomyocytes and the combined relative cardiomyocyte expression of these genes correlated positively with age. Genes encoding proteins in the RAAS and interferon/interleukin pathways were also upregulated such as ACE, AGTR1, MAS1 and IL6R.Our results highlight SARS-CoV-2 related genes that have higher expression in aged compared with young adult cardiomyocytes. These data may inform studies using selective enzyme inhibitors/antagonists, available as experimental compounds or clinically approved drugs e.g. remdesivir that has recently been rapidly accepted for compassionate use, to further understand the contribution of these pathways in human cardiomyocytes to disease outcome in COVID-19 patients.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL