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1.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 80, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has been the main tool to contain the pandemic. The rush development of the 3 vaccines and their expedited approval have led to inoculation of millions of patients around the world, leading to a containment of the disease. Despite continuous viral mutations and the identification of weaker variants, the severity of the infections has been mild, with many patients being either asymptomatic or recovering at home. Currently the focus has shifted from the host of organ damage related to the infection to potential side effects of the vaccine. Myocarditis has been reported as one of the potential side effects from the mRNA vaccine, affecting young healthy individuals. Up to September 30, 2021, 1.243 cases of myocarditis after vaccination with BNT162b2 Comirnaty© were registered in young adults by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute in Germany alone. The exact pathophysiology and the risk factors for myocarditis following vaccination remain unclear. We present a case series of eight patients with cardiac symptom shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination (BNT162b6, Biontech, Comirnaty© or mRNA-1237 Moderna, Spikevax©). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients between 13 and 56 years of age, vaccinated with either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 mRNA vaccine between January and August 2021 developed cardiac side effects shortly after either their first or second dose of the vaccine. Clinical data were retrieved from the clinical information system and analyzed. To support diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed shortly after the onset of symptoms, with further investigations in severe cases. Symptoms were defined as dyspnea, chest pain and cardiac arrhythmia as determined by electrocardiography. RESULTS: Eight patients (5 males and 3 females) developed cardiac symptoms compatible with myocarditis, according to the CDC criteria, shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Three patients (2 males, 1 female) required hospitalization due to severe chest pain and elevated troponin levels. All patients recovered fully within 7 days from the symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that cardiac adverse events such as myocarditis or pericarditis shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination are rare but possible and occur particularly in male patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chest Pain , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Pericarditis/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult , /adverse effects
2.
Rofo ; 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839590

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess whether it is possible to reliably detect patients with strong suspicion of COVID-19 despite initially negative quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) tests by means of computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 437 patients with suspected COVID-19 but initially negative qPCR and subsequent chest CT between March 13 and November 30, 2020 were included in this retrospective study. CT findings were compared to results of successive qPCR tests (minimum of 3 qPCR tests if CT suggested infection) to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of CT for diagnosing COVID-19. RESULTS: COVID-19 was diagnosed correctly with a sensitivity of 100 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 65-100] and a specificity of 88 % [95 % CI: 84-90]. A PPV of 12 % [95 % CI: 6-22] and an NPV of 100 % [95 % CI: 99-100] were determined. CONCLUSION: CT is able to detect COVID-19 before qPCR in initially negative patients in this special study setting. Similar CT findings in COVID-19 and other atypical pneumonias can lead to high numbers of false-positive patients, reducing the specificity of CT. KEY POINTS: · Low-dose chest CT is able to diagnose COVID-19 in symptomatic patients even in cases of an initially negative quantitative PCR result and therefore is a fast support method to detect COVID-19, especially in early disease.. · Low-dose chest CT can reliably exclude COVID-19 in a pandemic setting.. · CT does not always ensure a reliable differentiation from other viral diseases.. CITATION FORMAT: · Valentin B, Steuwe A, Wienemann T, et al. CT Findings in Patients with COVID-19-Compatible Symptoms but Initially Negative qPCR Test. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2022; DOI: 10.1055/a-1779-9230.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335374

ABSTRACT

Background: Since development and approval of the world´s first mRNA vaccines, created under pressure of the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, potential side effects have naturally been a much-debated topic. Vaccination may be one, if not the only way out of the pandemic claiming more than 4 million deaths worldwide to date. Potential side effects from vaccination have long been controversial, and case reports of fatal side effects have been published. Therefore, data are needed to identify persons being at high risk for potential side effects. Until September 30, 2021, 1.243 cases of myocarditis after vaccination with BNT162b2 Comirnaty © in young adults were registered by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute in Germany alone. The exact pathophysiology and the risk factors for myocarditis following vaccination remain unclear. We present a case series of eight patients with cardiac symptom shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination (BNT162b6, Biontech, Comirnaty © or mRNA-1237 Moderna, Spikevax © ). Patients and Methods Eight patients between 13-56 years of age, vaccinated with mRNA vaccine either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 between January and August 2021 developed cardiac side effects shortly after either their first or second vaccination. Clinical data were retrieved from the clinical information system and analyzed. To support diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed shortly after onset of symptoms and investigated further in severe cases. Symptoms were defined as dyspnea, chest pain, cardiac arrhythmia as determined by electrocardiography. Results: Eight patients (five males and three females) developed cardiac symptoms compatible with myocarditis according to CDC criteria shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Three patients (two males, one female) required hospitalization due to severe chest pain and elevated troponin levels. All patients recovered fully within seven days after symptom onset Conclusion: Our data suggest that cardiac adverse events such as myocarditis or pericarditis shortly after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination are rare but possible and occur particularly in male patients.

4.
Rofo ; 194(6): 644-651, 2022 06.
Article in English, German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795631

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, higher education worldwide had to switch to digital formats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate CoRad-19, a digital teaching tool created by the German Radiological Society for medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 13 German-speaking universities implemented CoRad-19 in their curriculum and partially or completely replaced their classes with the online courses. Previous experience and contact with radiology and the participants' opinions regarding the medium of e-learning were surveyed using a custom questionnaire. The subjective level of knowledge regarding the individual modules was also surveyed before and after participation to measure learning effects. The data of 994 medical students from the participating sites were analyzed and compared intraindividually using the Friedman test. RESULTS: From 4/1/2020-10/1/2020, 451 complete data sets from a total of 994 surveys were included. E-learning was rated "very useful" both before and after course participation (4 [IQR 3-4], p = 0.527, r = 0.16). E-learning as a method was also rated as a "very good" medium both before and after participation (4 [IQR 3-4], p = 0.414, r = 0.17). After participation, participants rated radiology as particularly suitable for digital teaching (before: 3 [IQR 3-4] vs. after 4 [IQR 3-4], p = 0.005, r = 0.6). Significant learning gains were measurable in all course modules (p ≤ 0.009). Post-hoc analysis showed interest in radiology to increase significantly after course participation (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: In the representative survey, significant learning effects were observed in all course modules. In addition, it should be particularly emphasized that the students' interest in radiology was increased by course participation. Thus, the German Radiological Society provided significant support to German-speaking medical faculties with respect to maintaining excellent education using CoRad-19. KEY POINT: · Co-Rad-19 course participation results in measurable subjective learning effects and increases student interest in radiology.. CITATION FORMAT: · Brendlin AS, Molwitz I, Oechtering TH et al. CoRad-19 - Modular Digital Teaching during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2022; 194: 644 - 651.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching
5.
Rofo ; 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713251

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Classifications were created to facilitate radiological evaluation of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on computed tomography (CT) images. The categorical CT assessment scheme (CO-RADS) categorizes lung parenchymal changes according to their likelihood of being caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study investigates the diagnostic accuracy of diagnosing COVID-19 with CO-RADS compared to the Thoracic Imaging Section of the German Radiological Society (DRG) classification and Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) classification in an anonymized patient cohort. To mimic advanced disease stages, follow-up examinations were included as well. METHOD: This study includes all patients undergoing chest CT in the case of a suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection or an already confirmed infection between March 13 and November 30, 2020. During the study period, two regional lockdowns occurred due to high incidence values, increasing the pre-test probability of COVID-19. Anonymized CT images were reviewed retrospectively and in consensus by two radiologists applying CO-RADS, DRG, and RSNA classification. Afterwards, CT findings were compared to results of sequential real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test performed during hospitalization to determine statistical analysis for diagnosing COVID-19. RESULTS: 536 CT examinations were included. CO-RADS, DRG and RSNA achieved an NPV of 96 %/94 %/95 % (CO-RADS/DRG/RSNA), PPV of 83 %/80 %/88 %, sensitivity of 86 %/76 %/80 %, and specificity of 96 %/95 %/97 %. The disease prevalence was 20 %. CONCLUSION: All applied classifications can reliably exclude a SARS-CoV-2 infection even in an anonymous setting. Nevertheless, pre-test probability was high in our study setting and has a great influence on the classifications. Therefore, the applicability of the individual classifications will become apparent in the future with lower prevalence and incidence of COVID-19. KEY POINTS: · CO-RADS, DRG, and RSNA classifications help to reliably detect infected patients in an anonymized setting. · Pre-test probability has a great influence on the individual classifications. · Difficulties in an anonymized study setting are severe pulmonary changes and residuals.. CITATION FORMAT: · Valentin B, Steuwe A, Wienemann T et al. Applicability of CO-RADS in an Anonymized Cohort Including Early and Advanced Stages of COVID-19 in Comparison to the Recommendations of the German Radiological Society and Radiological Society of North America. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2022; DOI: 10.1055/a-1740-4310.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 645989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389177

ABSTRACT

We describe the unique disease course and cure of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient with SCID and graft failure. In absence of a humoral immune response, viral clearance was only achieved after transfusion of convalescent plasma. This observation underscores the necessity of the humoral immune response for SARS-CoV-2 clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/complications , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Graft Rejection/complications , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/immunology , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/virology , Sustained Virologic Response , Viral Load , Virus Replication
7.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(5): e04068, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242709

ABSTRACT

This case of secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC-CIP) emphasizes the need to provide follow-up care for patients that have recovered from COVID-19 in order to understand the complexity of SARS-CoV-2 associated sequela.

9.
J Radiol Prot ; 40(3): 877-891, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The detection of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has varying sensitivity. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest can verify infection in patients with clinical symptoms and a negative test result, accelerating treatment and actions to prevent further contagion. However, CT employs ionising radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate protocol settings, associated radiation exposure, image quality and diagnostic performance of a low-dose CT protocol in a university hospital setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest CT examinations were performed on a single scanner (Somatom Definition Edge, Siemens Healthineers, Germany) in 105 symptomatic patients (60 male, 45 female). Images were evaluated with regard to protocol parameters, image quality, radiation exposure and diagnostic accuracy. Serial RT-PCR served as the standard of reference. Based on this reference standard sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of CT with 95% confidence interval were calculated. RESULTS: The mean effective dose was 1.3 ± 0.4 mSv (0.7-2.9 mSv) for the patient cohort (mean age 66.6 ± 16.7 years (19-94 years), mean body mass index (BMI) 26.6 ± 5.3 kg m-2 (16-46 kg/m2)). A sensitivity of 100 [95% CI: 82-100]%, a specificity of 78 [95% CI: 68-86]%, a positive predictive value of 50 [95% CI: 33-67]% and a negative predictive value of 100 [95% CI: 95-100]% were obtained. No COVID-19 diagnoses were missed by CT. Image noise did not strongly correlate with BMI or patient diameter and was rated as average. CONCLUSIONS: We presented a robust imaging procedure with a chest CT protocol for confident diagnosis of COVID-19. Even for an overweight patient cohort, an associated radiation exposure of only 1.3 ± 0.4 mSv was achieved with sufficient diagnostic quality to exclude COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiation Dosage , Radiography, Thoracic/standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Rofo ; 192(7): 633-640, 2020 07.
Article in English, German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401514

ABSTRACT

This information provided by the Thoracic Imaging Section of the German Radiological Society is intended to give physicians recommendations on the use of thoracic imaging procedures in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. It represents the consensus of the authors based on the previous scientific knowledge and is intended to provide guidance for unified, structured CT reporting if COVID-19 pneumonia is suspected. The recommendations presented correspond to state of knowledge at the time of print and will be updated according to the results of ongoing and future scientific studies. KEY POINTS:: · COVID-19. · chest imaging. · German Radiological Society. CITATION FORMAT: · Vogel-Claussen J, Ley-Zaporozhan J, Agarwal P et al. Recommendations of the Thoracic Imaging Section of the German Radiological Society for clinical application of chest imaging and structured CT reporting in the COVID-19 pandemic. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2020; DOI: 10.1055/a-1174-8378.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19 , Germany , Humans , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic/standards , Radiology/standards , Societies
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