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Clinicoecon Outcomes Res ; 14: 293-307, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833888


Objective: To review and qualitatively synthesize the evidence related to the economic burden of COVID-19, including healthcare resource utilization and costs. Methods: A systematic review of studies that assessed the economic burden [eg, direct costs, productivity, macroeconomic impact due to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and equity] of COVID-19 was conducted by searches in EMBASE, MEDLINE, MEDLINE-IN-PROCESS, and The Cochrane Library, as well as manual searches of unpublished research for the period between January 2020 to February 2021. Single reviewer data extraction was confirmed independently by a second reviewer. Results: The screening process resulted in a total of 27 studies: 25 individual publications, and 2 systematic literature reviews, of narrower scopes, that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The patients diagnosed with more severe COVID-19 were associated with higher costs. The main drivers for higher costs were consistent across countries and included ICU admission, in-hospital resource use such as mechanical ventilation, which lead to increase costs of $2082.65 ± 345.04 to $2990.76 ± 545.98. The most frequently reported indirect costs were due to productivity losses. On average, older COVID-19 patients incurred higher costs when compared to younger age groups. An estimation of a 20% COVID-19 infection rate based on a Monte Carlo simulation in the United States led to a total direct medical cost of $163.4 billion over the course of the pandemic. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a considerable economic burden on patients and the general population. Preventative measures such as NPIs only have partial success in lowering the economic costs of the pandemic. Implementing additional preventative measures such as large-scale vaccination is vital in reducing direct and indirect medical costs, decreased productivity, and GDP losses.

Journal of Liver Transplantation ; : 100051, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1474864


The COVID-19 pandemic strongly affected organ procurement and transplantation in France, despite the intense efforts of all participants in this domain. In 2020, the identification and procurement of deceased donors fell by 12% and 21% respectively, compared with the mean of the preceding 2 years. Similarly, the number of new registrations on the national waiting list declined by 12% and the number of transplants by 24%. The 3-month cumulative incidence of death or drop out for worsening condition of patients awaiting a liver transplant was significantly greater in 2020 compared to the previous 2 years. Continuous monitoring at the national level of early post-transplant outcomes showed no deterioration for any organ in 2020. At the end of 2020, less than 1% of transplant candidates and less than 1% of graft recipients — of any organ — had died of COVID-19.

Nat Immunol ; 22(3): 322-335, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060966


Immune system dysfunction is paramount in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and fatality rate. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells involved in mucosal immunity and protection against viral infections. Here, we studied the immune cell landscape, with emphasis on MAIT cells, in cohorts totaling 208 patients with various stages of disease. MAIT cell frequency is strongly reduced in blood. They display a strong activated and cytotoxic phenotype that is more pronounced in lungs. Blood MAIT cell alterations positively correlate with the activation of other innate cells, proinflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin (IL)-18, and with the severity and mortality of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We also identified a monocyte/macrophage interferon (IFN)-α-IL-18 cytokine shift and the ability of infected macrophages to induce the cytotoxicity of MAIT cells in an MR1-dependent manner. Together, our results suggest that altered MAIT cell functions due to IFN-α-IL-18 imbalance contribute to disease severity, and their therapeutic manipulation may prevent deleterious inflammation in COVID-19 aggravation.

COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Interleukin-18/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Female , France , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-15/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-8/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Vero Cells , Young Adult