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2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the immunogenicity of the third dose of CoronaVac vaccine in a large population of patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) and the factors associated with impaired response. METHODS: Adult patients with ARD and age-balanced/sex-balanced controls (control group, CG) previously vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac received the third dose at D210 (6 months after the second dose). The presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG and neutralising antibodies (NAb) was evaluated previously to vaccination (D210) and 30 days later (D240). Patients with controlled disease suspended mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for 7 days or methotrexate (MTX) for 2 weekly doses after vaccination. RESULTS: ARD (n=597) and CG (n=199) had comparable age (p=0.943). Anti-S1/S2 IgG seropositivity rates significantly increased from D210 (60%) to D240 (93%) (p<0.0001) in patients with ARD. NAb positivity also increased: 38% (D210) vs 81.4% (D240) (p<0.0001). The same pattern was observed for CG, with significantly higher frequencies for both parameters at D240 (p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses in the ARD group revealed that older age (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.0, p=0.024), vasculitis diagnosis (OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.53, p<0.001), prednisone ≥5 mg/day (OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.77, p=0.003), MMF (OR=0.30, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.61, p<0.001) and biologics (OR=0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.46, p<0.001) were associated with reduced anti-S1/S2 IgG positivity. Similar analyses demonstrated that prednisone ≥5 mg/day (OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.90, p=0.011), abatacept (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.74, p=0.004), belimumab (OR=0.29, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.67, p=0.004) and rituximab (OR=0.11, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.30, p<0.001) were negatively associated with NAb positivity. Further evaluation of COVID-19 seronegative ARD at D210 demonstrated prominent increases in positivity rates at D240 for anti-S1/S2 IgG (80.5%) and NAb (59.1%) (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We provide novel data on a robust response to the third dose of CoronaVac in patients with ARD, even in those with prevaccination COVID-19 seronegative status. Drugs implicated in reducing immunogenicity after the regular two-dose regimen were associated with non-responsiveness after the third dose, except for MTX.Trial registration number NCT04754698.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307113

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac(SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine) has been largely used as the main immunogen for COVID-19 in several countries. However, its immunogenicity in immunocompromised individuals has not been established. This was a prospective controlled study of 910 adult ARD patients and 182 age- and sex-matched control group(CG) who received two doses of CoronaVac in a 28-days interrval. Anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG and neutralizing antibodies were assessed at each vaccine shot and 6 weeks after the 2nd dose. Vaccine adverse events(AE) were similar in both groups. We observed significant lower anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG seroconversion(70.4% vs. 95.5%,p < 0.001) and titers[12.1(95%CI 11.0-13.2) vs. 29.7(95%CI 26.3–33.5),p < 0.001], frequency of neutralizing antibodies(56.3% vs. 79.3%),p < 0.001) and median (interquartile range) neutralization activity [58.7(43.1–77.2) vs. 64.5(48.4–81.4),p = 0.013] in ARD patients compared to CG. A significant decline in the number of COVID-19 cases (p < 0.0001) were observed 10 days after the second dose, with a predominant P1 variant. Safety analysis revealed no moderate/severe AEs. In conclusion, CoronaVac has an excellent safety profile and reasonable rates of quantitative serology(70.4%)/neutralization(56.3%) in ARD patients. The impact of this reduced immunogenicity in vaccine effectiveness warrants further evaluation.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305026

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited information is available on response to Covid-19 vaccines in autoimmune rheumatic disease patients(ARD) previously exposed to the SARS-CoV-2. We compared the dynamics of vaccine induced antibody production after immunization with CoronaVac in SARS-CoV-2 - seropositive ARD patients(ARD+) with two age/sex balanced groups: SARS-CoV-2 naïve ARD patients(NAÏVE-ARD) and SARS-CoV-2-seropositive control group(CTRL+).Methods: Participants of this phase 4 prospective controlled study were vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac(28-days interval). Primary objective was immunogenicity dynamics evaluated by median neutralizing activity(NAb-activity)/anti-SARS-Cov-2 ln(IgG) titers[ln(IgG)] from D0-D28 and from D28-D69. Secondary objectives included safety and other immunogenicity parameters.Findings: Disease and therapy were similar in ARD+ and NAÏVE-ARD groups(p>0·05). A comparable dynamics was observed for ARD+ and CTRL+ with a plateau increase occurring from D0-D28[ARD+, NAb-activity:59·1% to 81·8%, mean difference -12·1%,p=0·002 and anti-S1/S2-GMT:52·3 to 128·9, ln(IgG) mean difference -0·9,p<0·001] and [CTRL+, NAb-activity:57·5 to 91·9%, mean difference -25·2%,p<0·001 and anti-S1/S2-GMT: 53·3 to 202·0, ln(IgG) mean difference -1·33,p<0·001]. Insignificant increments occurred from D28-D69 for ARD+ and CTRL+ regarding NAb-activity(p>0·999) and anti-S1/S2-GMT(p<0·999). In contrast, a distinct pattern was observed for NAÏVE-ARD with negligible increase from D0-D28 [NAÏVE-ARD: NAb-activity:15 vs. 15%, mean difference -8·3%,p<0·001 and anti-S1/S2-GMT:2·3 vs. 5·7, ln(IgG) mean difference -0·93,p<0·001] and a moderate increase from D28-D69[NAÏVE-ARD: NAb-activity:15·0 vs. 39·4%, mean difference -19·2%,p<0·001 and anti-S1/S2-GMT:5·7 vs. 29·6, ln(IgG) mean difference -1·65,p<0·001]. Supporting these findings, significant differences in NAb activity/ln(IgG) anti-S1/S2-GMT were observed between ARD+ vs. NAÏVE-ARD at D0:43·8%/3·14,p<0·001, D28:47·5%/3·12,p<0·001 and D69:29%/1·53,p<0·001, whereas no difference occurred between ARD+ vs. CTRL+ at D0:-0·5%/-0·02,p>0·999 and D69:-12·3%,p=0·167/0·32%,p=0·258 with minor difference at D28:-13·6%, p=0·067/-0·45,p=0·006.Interpretation: ARD+ patients mount a robust plateau response after a single dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, independent of pre-existing ARD/therapy, whereas NAÏVE-ARD patients require the second dose to ensure a moderate antibody production. Our findings raise the possibility of a single dose regimen in ARD patients previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2.[clinicaltrials.gov#NCT04754698]Funding: FAPESP/CNPq/B3-Bolsa de Valores-Brasil.Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: The protocol was approved by the National and Institutional Ethical Committee (CAAE: 42566621.0.0000.0068)

5.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(2): e113-e124, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649499

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to examine the immunogenicity pattern induced by the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac (Sinovac Life Sciences, Beijing, China) in SARS-CoV-2 seropositive patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases compared with seropositive controls, seronegative patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and seronegative controls. Methods: CoronavRheum is an ongoing, prospective, controlled, phase 4 study, in which patients aged 18 years or older with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and healthy controls were recruited from a single site (Rheumatology Division of Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo) in São Paulo, Brazil Participants were vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac (intramuscular injection, 3 µg in 0·5 mL of ß-propiolactone inactivated SARS-CoV-2) on day 0 and on day 28. Blood samples were taken pre-vaccination on day 0, day 28, and also on day 69. For this subgroup analysis, participants were defined as being SARS-CoV-2 seropositive or seronegative prevaccination via anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)1 or S2 IgG (cutoff of 15·0 arbitrary units [AU] per mL) or neutralising antibody titres (cutoff of ≥30%) and were matched for age and sex, via convenience sampling, in a 1:3:1:1 ratio (seropositive patients to seronegative patients to seropositive controls to seronegative controls). The primary outcomes were rates of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 IgG seropositivity and SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody positivity at day 28 and day 69 and immunogenicity dynamics assessed by geometric mean titres (GMTs) of IgG and median neutralising activity in seropositive patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases compared with seronegative patients and seropositive and seronegative controls. We assessed safety in all participants randomly selected for this subgroup analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04754698, and is ongoing for long-term immunogenicity evaluation. Findings: Between Feb 4 and Feb 8, 2021, 1418 patients and 542 controls were recruited, of whom 1685 received two vaccinations (1193 patients and 492 controls). After random sampling, our immunogenicity analysis population comprised 942 participants, of whom 157 were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, 157 were seropositive controls, 471 were seronegative patients, and 157 were seronegative controls; the median age was 48 years (IQR 38-56) and 594 (63%) were female and 348 (37%) were male. For seropositive patients and controls, an increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 IgG titres (seropositive patients GMT 52·3 [95% CI 42·9-63·9] at day 0 vs 128·9 [105·6-157·4] at day 28; seropositive controls 53·3 [45·4-62·5] at day 0 vs 202·0 [174·8-233·4] at day 28) and neutralising antibody activity (seropositive patients 59% [IQR 39-83] at day 0 vs 82% [54-96] at day 28; seropositive controls 58% [41-79] at day 0 vs 92% [79-96] at day 28), was observed from day 0 to day 28, without further increases from day 28 to day 69 (at day 69 seropositive patients' GMT was 137·1 [116·2-161·9] and neutralising antibody activity was 79% [57-94]); and seropositive controls' GMT was 188·6 [167·4-212·6] and neutralising antibody activity was 92% [75-96]). By contrast, for seronegative patients and controls, the second dose was required for maximum response at day 69, which was lower in seronegative patients than in seronegative controls. GMTs in seronegative patients were 2·3 (95% CI 2·2-2·3) at day 0, 5·7 (5·1-6·4) at day 28, and 29·6 (26·4-33·3) at day 69, and in seronegative controls were 2·3 (2·1-2·5) at day 0, 10·6 (8·7-13·1) at day 28, and 71·7 (63·5-81·0) at day 69; neutralising antibody activity in seronegative patients was 15% (IQR 15-15) on day 0, 15% (15-15) at day 28, and 39% (15-65) at day 69, and in seronegative controls was 15% (15-15) at day 0, 24% (15-37) at day 28, and 61% (37-79) at day 69. Neither seronegative patients nor seronegative controls reached the GMT or antibody activity levels of seropositive patients at day 69. Interpretation: By contrast with seronegative patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, seropositive patients have a robust response after a single dose of CoronaVac. Our findings raise the possibility that the reduced immunogenicity observed in seronegative patients might not be the optimum response potential to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and therefore emphasise the importance of at least a single booster vaccination in these patients. Funding: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, and B3-Bolsa de Valores do Brasil. Translation: For the Portuguese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(3): 790-798, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The modulating effect of vitamin D on cytokine concentrations in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effect of a single high dose of vitamin D3 on cytokines, chemokines, and growth factor in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODS: This is a post hoc, ancillary, and exploratory analysis from a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 were recruited from 2 hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. Of 240 randomly assigned patients, 200 were assessed in this study and randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D3 (n = 101) or placebo (n = 99). The primary outcome was hospital length of stay, which has been published in our previous study. The prespecified secondary outcomes were serum concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The post hoc exploratory secondary outcomes were IL-4, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IFN-γ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-8, IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß (MIP-1ß), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and leukocyte count. Generalized estimating equations for repeated measures, with Bonferroni's adjustment, were used for testing all outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 200 patients with a mean ± SD age of 55.5 ± 14.3 y and BMI of 32.2 ± 7.1 kg/m2, of which 109 (54.5%) were male. GM-CSF concentrations showed a significant group-by-time interaction effect (P = 0.04), although the between-group difference at postintervention after Bonferroni's adjustment was not significant. No significant effects were observed for the other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings do not support the use of a single dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D3, compared with placebo, for the improvement of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factor in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04449718.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokines/drug effects , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cytokines/drug effects , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
7.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547649

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this ancillary analysis of a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a single high dose of vitamin D3 on the length of hospital stay of patients with severe 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and COVID-19. METHODS: The primary outcome was length of hospital stay, defined as the total number of days that patients remained hospitalized from the date of randomization until the date of hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mortality during hospitalization, number of patients admitted to the intensive care unit, and number of patients who required mechanical ventilation. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04449718. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were included in the study. The mean (SD) age was 58.5 (15.6) years, body mass index was 30.8 (8.6) kg/m2, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 7.8 (1.6) ng/mL. No significant difference was observed in the median interquartile range of length of hospital stay between the vitamin D3 group (6.0 [4.0-18.0] days) versus placebo (9.5 [6.3-15.5] days) (log-rank p=0.74; hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53-2.40]; p=0.76). Vitamin D3 significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the vitamin D3 group compared with that in the placebo group (between-group difference, 23.9 ng/mL [95% CI, 17.7-30.1]; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A dose of 200.000 IU of vitamin D3 did not significantly reduce the length of hospital stay of patients with severe 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Cholecalciferol , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Length of Stay , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
8.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3511, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547647

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate demographic, anthropometric and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a longitudinal observational study of surviving pediatric post-COVID-19 patients (n=53) and pediatric subjects without laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 included as controls (n=52) was performed. RESULTS: The median duration between COVID-19 diagnosis (n=53) and follow-up was 4.4 months (0.8-10.7). Twenty-three of 53 (43%) patients reported at least one persistent symptom at the longitudinal follow-up visit and 12/53 (23%) had long COVID-19, with at least one symptom lasting for >12 weeks. The most frequently reported symptoms at the longitudinal follow-up visit were headache (19%), severe recurrent headache (9%), tiredness (9%), dyspnea (8%), and concentration difficulty (4%). At the longitudinal follow-up visit, the frequencies of anemia (11% versus 0%, p=0.030), lymphopenia (42% versus 18%, p=0.020), C-reactive protein level of >30 mg/L (35% versus 0%, p=0.0001), and D-dimer level of >1000 ng/mL (43% versus 6%, p=0.0004) significantly reduced compared with baseline values. Chest X-ray abnormalities (11% versus 2%, p=0.178) and cardiac alterations on echocardiogram (33% versus 22%, p=0.462) were similar at both visits. Comparison of characteristic data between patients with COVID-19 at the longitudinal follow-up visit and controls showed similar age (p=0.962), proportion of male sex (p=0.907), ethnicity (p=0.566), family minimum monthly wage (p=0.664), body mass index (p=0.601), and pediatric pre-existing chronic conditions (p=1.000). The Pediatric Quality of Live Inventory 4.0 scores, median physical score (69 [0-100] versus 81 [34-100], p=0.012), and school score (60 [15-100] versus 70 [15-95], p=0.028) were significantly lower in pediatric patients with COVID-19 at the longitudinal follow-up visit than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 showed a longitudinal impact on HRQoL parameters, particularly in physical/school domains, reinforcing the need for a prospective multidisciplinary approach for these patients. These data highlight the importance of closer monitoring of children and adolescents by the clinical team after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Latin America , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3488, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic/clinical/laboratory/treatments and outcomes among children and adolescents with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included patients diagnosed with pediatric COVID-19 (aged <18 years) between April 11, 2020 and April 22, 2021. During this period, 102/5,951 (1.7%) of all admissions occurred in neonates, children, and adolescents. Furthermore, 3,962 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection samples were processed in patients aged <18 years, and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 occurred in 155 (4%) inpatients and outpatients. Six/155 pediatric patients were excluded from the study. Therefore, the final group included 149 children and adolescents (n=97 inpatients and 52 outpatients) with positive SARS-CoV-2 results. RESULTS: The frequencies of sore throat, anosmia, dysgeusia, headache, myalgia, nausea, lymphopenia, pre-existing chronic conditions, immunosuppressive conditions, and autoimmune diseases were significantly reduced in children and adolescents (p<0.05). Likewise, the frequencies of enoxaparin use (p=0.037), current immunosuppressant use (p=0.008), vasoactive agents (p=0.045), arterial hypotension (p<0.001), and shock (p=0.024) were significantly lower in children than in adolescents. Logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 had increased odds ratios (ORs) for sore throat (OR 13.054; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.750-61.977; p=0.001), nausea (OR 8.875; 95% CI 1.660-47.446; p=0.011), and lymphopenia (OR 3.575; 95% CI 1.355-9.430; p=0.010), but also had less hospitalizations (OR 0.355; 95% CI 0.138-0.916; p=0.032). The additional logistic regression analysis on patients with preexisting chronic conditions (n=108) showed that death as an outcome was significantly associated with pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (OR 22.300; 95% CI 2.341-212.421; p=0.007) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) (OR 11.261; 95% CI 1.189-106. 581; p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Half of the laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases occurred in adolescents. Individuals belonging to this age group had an acute systemic involvement of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pediatric SARS and MIS-C were the most important factors associated with the mortality rate in pediatric chronic conditions with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Nat Med ; 27(10): 1744-1751, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526090

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac, an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, has been approved for emergency use in several countries. However, its immunogenicity in immunocompromised individuals has not been well established. We initiated a prospective phase 4 controlled trial (no. NCT04754698, CoronavRheum) in 910 adults with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) and 182 age- and sex-frequency-matched healthy adults (control group, CG), who received two doses of CoronaVac. The primary outcomes were reduction of ≥15% in both anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion (SC) and neutralizing antibody (NAb) positivity 6 weeks (day 69 (D69)) after the second dose in the ARD group compared with that in the CG. Secondary outcomes were IgG SC and NAb positivity at D28, IgG titers and neutralizing activity at D28 and D69 and vaccine safety. Prespecified endpoints were met, with lower anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG SC (70.4 versus 95.5%, P < 0.001) and NAb positivity (56.3 versus 79.3%, P < 0.001) at D69 in the ARD group than in the CG. Moreover, IgG titers (12.1 versus 29.7, P < 0.001) and median neutralization activity (58.7 versus 64.5%, P = 0.013) were also lower at D69 in patients with ARD. At D28, patients with ARD presented with lower IgG frequency (18.7 versus 34.6%, P < 0.001) and NAb positivity (20.6 versus 36.3%, P < 0.001) than that of the CG. There were no moderate/severe adverse events. These data support the use of CoronaVac in patients with ARD, suggesting reduced but acceptable short-term immunogenicity. The trial is still ongoing to evaluate the long-term effectiveness/immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 598-604, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D acts as a mediator in the immune system regulating antiviral mechanisms and inflammatory processes. Vitamin D insufficiency has been suggested as a potential risk factor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, although its impact on the prognosis of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This multicenter prospective cohort study was designed to investigate whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration is associated with hospital length of stay and prognosis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 (n = 220) were recruited from 2 hospitals in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were categorized as follows: <10 ng/mL, 10 to <20 ng/mL, 20 to <30 ng/mL, and ≥30 ng/mL, and <10 ng/mL and ≥10 ng/mL. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay and the secondary outcomes were the rate of patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in hospital length of stay when the 4 25(OH)D categories were compared (P = 0.120). Patients exhibiting 25(OH)D <10 ng/mL showed a trend (P = 0.057) for longer hospital length of stay compared with those with 25(OH)D ≥10 ng/mL [9.0 d (95% CI: 6.4, 11.6 d) vs. 7.0 d (95% CI: 6.6, 7.4 d)]. The multivariable Cox proportional hazard models showed no significant associations between 25(OH)D and primary or secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19, those with severe 25(OH)D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) exhibited a trend for longer hospital length of stay compared with patients with higher 25(OH)D concentrations. This association was not significant in the multivariable Cox regression model. Prospective studies should test whether correcting severe 25(OH)D deficiency could improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins
12.
JAMA ; 325(11): 1053-1060, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168753

ABSTRACT

Importance: The efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the effect of a single high dose of vitamin D3 on hospital length of stay in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 2 sites in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study included 240 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were moderately to severely ill at the time of enrollment from June 2, 2020, to August 27, 2020. The final follow-up was on October 7, 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of 200 000 IU of vitamin D3 (n = 120) or placebo (n = 120). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was length of stay, defined as the time from the date of randomization to hospital discharge. Prespecified secondary outcomes included mortality during hospitalization; the number of patients admitted to the intensive care unit; the number of patients who required mechanical ventilation and the duration of mechanical ventilation; and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, total calcium, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results: Of 240 randomized patients, 237 were included in the primary analysis (mean [SD] age, 56.2 [14.4] years; 104 [43.9%] women; mean [SD] baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, 20.9 [9.2] ng/mL). Median (interquartile range) length of stay was not significantly different between the vitamin D3 (7.0 [4.0-10.0] days) and placebo groups (7.0 [5.0-13.0] days) (log-rank P = .59; unadjusted hazard ratio for hospital discharge, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.82-1.39]; P = .62). The difference between the vitamin D3 group and the placebo group was not significant for in-hospital mortality (7.6% vs 5.1%; difference, 2.5% [95% CI, -4.1% to 9.2%]; P = .43), admission to the intensive care unit (16.0% vs 21.2%; difference, -5.2% [95% CI, -15.1% to 4.7%]; P = .30), or need for mechanical ventilation (7.6% vs 14.4%; difference, -6.8% [95% CI, -15.1% to 1.2%]; P = .09). Mean serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly increased after a single dose of vitamin D3 vs placebo (44.4 ng/mL vs 19.8 ng/mL; difference, 24.1 ng/mL [95% CI, 19.5-28.7]; P < .001). There were no adverse events, but an episode of vomiting was associated with the intervention. Conclusions and Relevance: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, a single high dose of vitamin D3, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce hospital length of stay. The findings do not support the use of a high dose of vitamin D3 for treatment of moderate to severe COVID-19. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04449718.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Length of Stay , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Adult , Brazil , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Failure , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
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