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Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282149


The digitization of healthcare services is a major shift in the manner in which healthcare services are offered and managed in the modern era. The COVID-19 pandemic has speeded up the use of digital technologies in the healthcare sector. Healthcare 4.0 (H4.0) is much more than the adoption of digital tools, however; going beyond that, it is the digital transformation of healthcare. The successful implementation of H 4.0 presents a challenge as social and technical factors must be considered. This study, through a systematic literature review, expounds ten critical success factors for the successful implementation of H 4.0. Bibliometric analysis of existing articles is also carried out to understand the development of knowledge in this domain. H 4.0 is rapidly gaining prominence, and a comprehensive review of critical success factors in this area has yet to be conducted. Conducting such a review makes a valuable contribution to the body of knowledge in healthcare operations management. Furthermore, this study will also help healthcare practitioners and policymakers to develop strategies to manage the ten critical success factors while implementing H 4.0.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities
J Clean Prod ; 372: 133619, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996321


Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been produced on a large scale since 2020. However, large-scale vaccine production has led to two forms of waste; namely, overproduction and underutilization. Most of today's systems and technologies used to manage waste data related to COVID-19 vaccines fall short of providing transparency, traceability, accountability, trust, and security features. In this paper, we address the problem of COVID-19 vaccines waste due to their overproduction and underutilization. We propose a blockchain-based solution that is composed of five phases: registration, commitment; production and delivery; consumption; and waste assessment. These phases make up the complete life cycle of a COVID-19 vaccine, and they are governed by several smart contracts to ensure accountability of all the actions taken by the involved entities and reduce any excessive waste caused by overproduction, overordering, or underconsumption. We ensure security, traceability, and data provenance by recording all actions through smart contracts in the form of events on an immutable ledger. We utilize decentralized storage such as the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) to reduce the costs posed by large-sized file storage when stored on-chain. We present algorithms that describe the logic behind our developed smart contracts. We test and validate the functionalities of our proposed solution. We conduct security, cost, and scalability analyses to show that our solution is affordable, scalable, and secure. We compare our solution with the existing blockchain-based solutions to show its novelty and superiority. The smart contract code is made publicly available on GitHub.