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1.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e62, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the unprecedented spread of the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, primary healthcare workers (PHCWs) are having to shoulder the increasing weight of this ongoing pandemic. AIMS: This study explored the rate and covariates of depressive symptoms among PHCWs in the Muscat governorate. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from 10 May to 10 June 2020 among PHCWs working in all primary healthcares across the Muscat governorate. Data on sociodemographic and risk factors of having at least one underlying physical health condition, a psychiatric history, family history of psychiatric disorders, and direct involvement with COVID-19 positive patients were sought. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was then used to solicit the presence of depressive symptoms. Those with a cutoff point ≥10 were considered as showing depressive symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with depressive symptoms in PHCWs after adjusting for all sociodemographic factors. FINDINGS: A total of 432 (72%) out of 600 PHCWs with an average age of 39.2 years (SD = 7.8 years) ranging between 25.0 and 75.0 years responded to the survey. There were more females (n = 281, 65.3%) than males, and more than 45% (n = 195) of them were physicians. Additionally, more than 78% (n = 338) had been in contact with COVID-19 patients. There was a significant association between different age groups and profession (P < .001), having at least one underlying physical health condition (P = 0.001) and depressive symptom status (P = 0.038). A total of 78 out of the 423 subjects (18.1%) were considered to have depressive symptoms. After adjusting for all factors, the logistic regression model showed that an age of 34 years or below (OR = 2.079, P = 0.021) and having at least one underlying physical health condition (OR = 2.216, P = 0.007) were factors contributing significantly to depressive symptoms among the PHCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Oman , Pandemics
2.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211051930, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has led to health service modification and temporary disruption of the routine care provided to patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in primary care. This was done to minimize outpatient visits, permit physical distancing, and ensure patients' and healthcare providers safety. There is no evidence that explored or measured the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on diabetes services and patients' glycemic outcome in Oman. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the accessibility of DM services in primary care after COVID-19 pandemic announcement, and measure patients' glycemic outcome. METHODS: Before and after, retrospective cohort study using Al-Shifa healthcare database in primary care. One thousand adult patients with diabetes who attended DM clinic before pandemic announcement in 2019 were randomly selected and followed up until end of 2020. Patients aged ≥18 years and had at least 2 visits in 2019 were included. Access to DM services was identified by number of patients received care, frequency of consultations, mode of consultation, and type of intervention given to patients. Patients' glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and other glycemic parameters after pandemic announcement in 2020 were determined and compared with the same parameters before pandemic in 2019. Association between patients' HbA1c and mode of consultation was measured using multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 937 patients continued to follow and received DM care after pandemic announcement. Median number of consultations was 2 with interquartile range (IQR): 3-2. 57.4% had face-to-face alone, 32.4% had combined face to face and telephone consultation, and 10% had telephone consultation alone. Mean difference in HbA1c (%) before and after pandemic announcement was 0.2 ± 1.4 (95% CI: 0.1 to 0.3), P = .002. With multivariable linear regression, the mean difference in HbA1c was -0.3 (-2.3 to 1.5), P = .734 for telephone consultation alone, -0.5 (-2.4 to 1.4), P = .613 for face-to-face alone, and -0.5 (-2.4 to 1.3), P = .636 for combined consultations, compared to those who did not receive any formal consultation. CONCLUSION: Despite service modification and disruption of comprehensive care in primary care after COVID-19 pandemic announcement, DM services were accessible as majority of patients maintained follow up. There was an overall increase in mean glycated hemoglobin, however, it was a less than 1 unit increase. After adjusting for multivariable, glycated hemoglobin was reduced among those who received consultation including telephone consultation compared to those who did not, however evidence was unconvincing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adolescent , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Oman , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
3.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17055, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365830

ABSTRACT

Introduction Vaccinations against COVID-19 were licensed with limited testing assurances to the public triggering a widespread hesitancy around expected adverse reactions. Limited data was reported from Arabian Gulf countries on vaccine adverse effects. Objectives This study looked at the rate of reporting at least one side effect post-COVID-19 vaccination and its associated factors (sociodemographic characteristics, clinical condition, and type of vaccines). Additionally, questions about safety and willingness to recommend them were included. Study design Phone interviews on post-COVID-19 vaccination adverse effects were utilized to record responses related to reporting at least one side effect post vaccinations across the studied variables. Data collection continued for two months (from 1st March to 30th April 2021). Methodology Participants were adults (Omani citizens and non-citizens) who received AstraZeneca (AZ) or Pfizer (PF) vaccines from primary care facilities in Muscat and were randomly selected from the health information system. Responses were saved in a bespoke Google form/questionnaire. Chi-squared tests were utilized to determine potential factors associated with the dependent variable. Results A total of 753 participants completed the phone interviews. The mean age was 52 (3.5), males (54.1%), and 65.1% were Omanis. Hypertension (39.7%), diabetes (34.1%), and asthma (16.7%) were the commonest comorbidities. AZ and PF were administered to 78% and 22% of the participants. Of them, 49.8% reported at least one adverse effect post-COVID-19 vaccination. The proportion of participants with at least one adverse effect was significantly more in individuals who were younger, females, with more than secondary education, and employed (p value < 0.001, 0.01, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). There was no severe reaction (anaphylactic shock) to the vaccines, and most adverse effects were mild-moderate. The proportion of individuals who reported adverse effects were higher with AZ vs PF (53% vs 38.6, p = 0.001). The most common reported localized adverse effects were pain and tenderness (28.3% and 12.1%). Fever and body aches were the commonly reported systemic adverse effects (33.5% and 29.2%). The safety of COVID-19 vaccines was well perceived, and most participants were willing to recommend them to others. Conclusions The current study confirms findings from existing literature on the mild to moderate adverse effects of AZ and PF vaccines. Despite the subjective nature of this study, it is reassuring that the studied COVID-19 vaccines can be administered safely. However, more longitudinal studies are needed to test their efficacy in disease prevention.

4.
Biological Rhythm Research ; : 1-12, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1207185

ABSTRACT

<bold>Background</bold>: One of the many repercussions from the COVID-19 pandemic has been stress. The death toll from the pandemic, as well as sleep loss, have been noted to be the root causes of COVID-19 related stress and distress among students in the Arabian Gulf countries. <bold>Aims:</bold> This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported sleeping problems and the socio-demographic, clinical and lifestyle factors among quarantined Omani students arriving from abroad <bold>Methods:</bold> This was a cross-sectional analytical study conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, from April 1-10 2020. The participants were all Omani students who had arrived from abroad during the pandemic. The outcome measures consisted of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder -7 (GAD-7), as well as relevant socio-demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors. <bold>Result:</bold> A total of 376 participants were included in this study with 49.5% (n = 186) noted to be suffering from insomnia. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that female students were 2.4 times (odds ratio [OR] = 2.43;confidence interval [CI]: 1.50-3.93;<italic>P</italic> < .001) more likely to suffer from insomnia when compared to male students. <bold>Conclusion:</bold> Almost half of the participants self-reported sleeping problems, with a higher prevalence among female students. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Biological Rhythm Research is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

5.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720985641, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999626

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an urgent global health priority. Although most patients with COVID-19 manifest with fever and respiratory tract symptoms, COVID-19 infections may also involve other organs and extrarespiratory manifestations, including cardiac, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, and neurological symptoms. This case describes a 16-year-old boy who presented with fever, sore throat, myalgia, and subsequently with shortness of breath. A diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. His condition deteriorated and he died within 3 days of admission. An evaluation of his past medical history confirmed an episode of viral illness which had progressed to myositis and rhabdomyolysis 1 year prior. Clinicians should be aware of this complication and maintain a high index of suspicion in cases of COVID-19 presenting with extrapulmonary symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , Adolescent , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720976480, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975846

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To enforce physical distancing measures during COVID-19, Telephone Consultation (TC), a form of telemedicine, was initiated as an alternative technology to face to face consultation in primary health care (PHC) in Muscat, Oman. This study aims to explore the perceptions of physicians about the use of TC with respect to process of implementation; challenges and limitations; lessons learned and the way forward. METHOD: This was a qualitative study using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Physicians who were actively conducting TC in PHC were purposively selected and individually interviewed until no new responses were obtained. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-two participants were interviewed. Participants were predominantly females (98%) and qualified family physicians (77.3%). Overall, all participants accepted this initiative as a possible method to continue health services during COVID-19. Perceptions about the process of implementing TC in PHC were themed to; inconsistent implementation of the guideline, variability in roles and responsibilities, and Semi-supportive infrastructure. Five themes were identified as challenges and limitations: limited staff training on TC, suboptimal patient-physician interaction, insufficient technical support, ensuring privacy, and confidentiality of the communication, and different ways to document the TC. Physicians expressed that TC worked better in following COVID-19 cases, chronic conditions, and, in general, simple cases. They also expressed a reduction in the crowdedness in PHC facilities and the risk of acquiring COVID-19 and other types of infections. Tailoring the existing structural clinical setting, capacity building activities on the use of TC, and improving the quality of the TC are viewed as essential steps for the future sustainability of TC in PHC. CONCLUSION: Given the exceptional situation of COVID-19, the current evidence suggests that the use of TC in PHC, especially in chronic cases, is promising. However, measures including training of staff, improving the structural setting, and selecting suitable cases for TC are the main elements for high quality and sustainable TC services in PHC from physician's perspective.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Physicians/psychology , Primary Health Care/methods , Telephone , Adult , Confidentiality , Female , Humans , Inservice Training , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , Physician's Role , Physician-Patient Relations , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720967514, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890050

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Predominantly, studies on COVID-19 report quantitative data that often miss the social implications and other determinants of health. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of health care workers (HCWs) in primary health care in the management of COVID-19 with respect to medical response experiences, socio-cultural and religious reforms, psychological impressions, and lessons learned. METHODS: This was a qualitative study using an empirical phenomenological approach. Six focus group discussions were conducted across various stakeholders working frontline in the management of COVID-19 (managerial, public health/field/community and primary care health centers). They participated in semi-structured, in-depth group discussions from 11th to 20th May 2020. All discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Forty participants were involved in this study. Three themes emerged related to the medical response experiences, including the rapid re-structuring of the PHC services, use of technology and challenges of working on COVID-19. Perceptions on the socio-cultural and religious reforms included changes in social and religious norms, and anticipated gaps in accessing health care among the vulnerable groups (elderly, expatriates, and individuals with low economic status). Perceptions on psychological disturbances were themed as consequences of social distancing, management of dead bodies, exhaustion among the health care workers, and risk of exposure. Finally, lessons learned were centered around building on the existing epidemiological and public health capacities, improving access to health care and overcoming resistance to change. Most participants labelled their experience in COVID-19 as an "experience of wisdom" in which learning was a continuous process. CONCLUSION: This qualitative study amongst primary HCWs revealed certain aspects of response to COVID-19 in Muscat, Oman. Results has unfolded various aspects of COVID-19. The situation was perceived by primary HCWs as a new experience that challenged the primary health care; enforced the utilization of public health/epidemiological skills, and linked to unfavorable socio-religious and psychological events.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Focus Groups , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oman/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Qualitative Research
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