Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(5): 3586-3599, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768544

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The virus first appeared in Wuhan (China) in December 2019 and has spread globally. Till now, it affected 269 million people with 5.3 million deaths in 224 countries and territories. With the emergence of variants like Omicron, the COVID-19 cases grew exponentially, with thousands of deaths. The general symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, sore throat, cough, lung infections, and, in severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and death. SARS-CoV-2 predominantly affects the lung, but it can also affect other organs such as the brain, heart, and gastrointestinal system. It is observed that 75 % of hospitalized COVID-19 patients have at least one COVID-19 associated comorbidity. The most common reported comorbidities are hypertension, NDs, diabetes, cancer, endothelial dysfunction, and CVDs. Moreover, older and pre-existing polypharmacy patients have worsened COVID-19 associated complications. SARS-CoV-2 also results in the hypercoagulability issues like gangrene, stroke, pulmonary embolism, and other associated complications. This review aims to provide the latest information on the impact of the COVID-19 on pre-existing comorbidities such as CVDs, NDs, COPD, and other complications. This review will help us to understand the current scenario of COVID-19 and comorbidities; thus, it will play an important role in the management and decision-making efforts to tackle such complications.

2.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(5): 515-525, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: About 270 million cases have been confirmed, and 5.3 million fatalities Worldwide due to SARS-CoV-2. Several vaccine candidates have entered phase 3 of the clinical trial and are being investigated to provide immunity to the maximum percentage of people. A safe and effective vaccine is required to tackle the current COVID-19 waves. There have been reports that clinical endpoints and psychological parameters are necessary to consider vaccine efficacy. This review examines the clinical endpoints required for a successful SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and the influences of psychological parameters on its efficacy. METHODS: The main research question was to find out the clinical endpoints that determine the vaccine efficacy? And what kind of psychological parameters affect the vaccine efficacy? The information was taken from several journals, databases, and scientific search engines like Googe scholar, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science direct, WHO website, and other various sites. The research studies were searched using keywords; SAR-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy, psychological effect on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, SARS-CoV-2 vaccine endpoints. RESULTS: This review has highlighted various clinical endpoints that are the main determinants of clinical vaccine efficacy. Currently, vaccinations are being carried out throughout the world; it is important to investigate the main determinants affecting vaccine efficacy. We have focused on the clinical endpoints and the influence of psychological parameters that affect the vaccine efficacy in clinical settings. The primary endpoints include the risk of infection, symptoms, and severity of COVID-19, while hospitalization length, supplemental oxygen requirement, and mechanical ventilation are secondary endpoints in the clinical endpoints. Some tangential endpoints were also considered, including organ dysfunction, stroke, and MI. Many psychological associated things have influenced the vaccine efficacy, like the lower antibody titers in the vaccinated people. In addition to that, Short- and long-term stress and sleep deprivation were also found to affect the vaccine efficacy. CONCLUSION: The review summarizes the important clinical endpoints required for a successful vaccine candidate. In addition to primary and secondary endpoints, auxiliary endpoints and the disease burden also play an important role in modulating vaccine efficacy. Moreover, the psychological perspective also influences vaccine efficacy. Effective follow-up of participants should follow to examine the clinical endpoints to reach any conclusion about vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(3): 331-337, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693250

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the severity of symptoms affects the treatment option for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the treatment pattern for mild to moderate non-ICU cases must be evaluated, particularly in the current scenario of mutation and variant strain for effective decision making. METHODS: The objective of retrospective analysis was to assess clinical and treatment outcomes in mild to moderate symptoms in non-ICU patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to major tertiary care hospitals in Al Baha, Saudi Arabia, between April and August 2020. RESULTS: A total of 811 people were admitted for COVID-19 treatment, age ranging from 14 to 66, diabetes mellitus (31%, n = 248) and hypertension (24%, n = 198) were the most common comorbid conditions. The hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treated group (G1 n = 466) had an MD of 8 and an IQR of 5-13 for time in hospital with a 4.3% mortality rate, while the non-HCQ group (G2 n = 345) had an MD of 6 and an IQR of 3-11 for time in hospital with a 3.2% mortality rate. A combination of antiviral and antibiotic treatment was found to be effective, other most frequent intervention was analgesics 85.7%, anticoagulant 75%, minerals (Zinc 83% and Vit D3 82%). CONCLUSIONS: The therapy and clinical outcomes from the past will be the guiding factor to treat the COVID variants infection in the future. Patients treated with HCQ had a higher mortality rate, whereas those who were given a non-HCQ combination had a greater clinical outcome profile. DATA AVAILABILITY: Data available on request due to ethical restrictions. The anonymized data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available to maintain privacy and adhere to guidelines of the ethics protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305190

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the severity of symptoms affects the treatment option for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the treatment pattern for mild to moderate non-ICU cases must be evaluated, particularly in the current scenario of mutation and variant strain for effective decision making. Objectives This retrospective study’s objectives were to assess clinical and treatment outcomes in mild to moderate non-ICU COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia. Methods Non-ICU patients with COVID-19 with mild to moderate symptoms who were admitted to major tertiary care hospitals in Al Baha, Saudi Arabia, between April and August 2019 were studied retrospectively for clinical outcomes. Results A total of 811 people were admitted for COVID-19 treatment, with age ranging from 14 to 66, diabetes mellitus (31 %, n = 248) and hypertension (24%, n = 198) were the most common comorbid conditions. The majority of the patients (77 %, n = 621) had reported symptoms for COVID -19 infection. The hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treated group (G1 n = 466) had an MD of 8 and an IQR of 5-13 for time in hospital with a 4.3 % mortality rate, while the non-HCQ group (G2 n = 345) had an MD of 6 and an IQR of 3-11 for time in hospital with a 3.2 % mortality rate. The mortality rate among non-HCQ treated patients varied, but a combination of antiviral and antibiotic treatment was found to be effective, other most frequent intervention was analgesics 85.7 %, anticoagulant 75 %, minerals (Zinc 83 % and Vit D3 82 %). Conclusions The COVID 19 therapy and clinical outcomes from the past will be the guiding factor to treat the mutant strain infection in the future. Patients treated HCQ had a higher mortality rate, whereas those who were given a non-HCQ combination had a greater clinical outcome profile.

5.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 228-240, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus epidemic is hastening the discovery of the most efficient vaccines. The development of cost-effective vaccines seems to be the only solution to terminate this pandemic. However, the vaccines' effectiveness has been questioned due to recurrent mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Most of the mutations are associated with the spike protein, a vital target for several marketed vaccines. Many countries were highly affected by the 2nd wave of the SARS-CoV-2, like the UK, India, Brazil and France. Experts are also alarming the further COVID-19 wave with the emergence of Omicron, which is highly affecting the South African populations. This review encompasses the detailed description of all vaccine candidates and COVID-19 mutants that will add value to design further studies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The information was generated using various search engines like google scholar, PubMed, clinicaltrial.gov.in, WHO database, ScienceDirect, and news portals by using keywords SARS-CoV-2 mutants, COVID-19 vaccines, efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, COVID-19 waves. RESULTS: This review has highlighted the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants and the vaccine efficacy. Currently, various vaccine candidates are undergoing several phases of development. Their efficacy still needs to check for newly emerged variants. We have focused on the evolution, multiple mutants, waves of the SARS-CoV-2, and different marketed vaccines undergoing various clinical trials and the design of the trials to determine vaccine efficacy. CONCLUSION: Various mutants of SARS-CoV-2 arrived, mainly concerned with the spike protein, a key component to design the vaccine candidates. Various vaccines are undergoing clinical trial and show impressive results, but their efficacy still needs to be checked in different SARS-CoV-2 mutants. We discussed all mutants of SARS-CoV-2 and the vaccine's efficacy against them. The safety concern of these vaccines is also discussed. It is important to understand how coronavirus gets mutated to design better new vaccines, providing long-term protection and neutralizing broad mutant variants. A proper study approach also needs to be considered while designing the vaccine efficacy trials, which further improved the study outcomes. Taking preventive measures to protect from the virus is also equally important, like vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1299-1312, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, humanity has observed the extraordinary anomaly caused by novel, weird coronavirus strains, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has made its entry into the world, it has dramatically affected life in every domain by continuously producing new variants. The vaccine development is an ongoing process, although some vaccines got marketed. The big challenge is now whether the vaccine candidates can provide long-lasting protection or prevention against mutant variants. METHODS: The information was gathered from various journals, electronic searches via Internet-based information such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, online electronic journals, WHO landscape, world meters, WHO website, and News. RESULTS: This review will present and discuss some coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) related aspects including: the pathophysiology, epidemiology, mutant variants vaccine candidates, vaccine efficacy, and management strategies. Due to the high death rate, continuous spread, an inadequate workforce, lack of required therapeutics, and incomplete understanding of the viral strain, it becomes crucial to build the knowledge of its biological characteristics and make available the rapid diagnostic and vital therapeutic machinery for the combat and management of an infection. CONCLUSION: The data summarizes current research on the COVID 19 infection and therapeutic interventions, which will direct future decision-making on the effort-worthy phases of the COVID 19 and the development of critical therapeutics. The only possible solution is the vaccine development targeting against all variant strains to halt its progress; the identified theoretical and practical knowledge can eliminate the gaps to improve a better understanding of the novel coronavirus structure and its design of a vaccine. In addition, to that the long-lasting protection is another challenging objective that need to be looked into.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
S Afr J Bot ; 143: 428-434, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294211

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) is a viral disease that causes acute respiratory syndrome, which has increased the morbidity and mortality rate throughout the world. World Health Organization has declared this COVID-19 outbreak as pandemic and classified health emergency throughout the world. In the recent past, outbreaks of SARS and MERS have shown the interspecies transmission potential of coronaviruses and limitations of already prescribed drugs to overcome this global public health issue. Therefore, there is a dire need to identify a new regimen of targeted drugs from natural compounds having anti-COVID19 potential. This study aimed at screening 1018 brown algal natural compounds (many of them previously reported to have immunomodulatory effects) having probable anti-COVID19 potentials. The source compounds were extracted from MarinLit, a database dedicated to marine natural products and screened against COVID-19 main protease. The top seven compounds were further analysed, and their interactions with the active site were visualized. This study will further warrant screening the potent compounds against the virus in-vitro conditions.

8.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158943

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine-based regimens versus standard treatment in patients with the coronavirus disease admitted in 2019 to a hospital in Saudi Arabia. A comparative observational study, using routine hospital data, was carried out in a large tertiary care hospital in Al Baha, Saudi Arabia, providing care to patients with COVID-19 between April 2019 and August 2019. Patients were categorized into two groups: the Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group, treated with HCQ in a dose of 400 mg twice daily on the first day, followed by 200 mg twice daily; the non HCQ group, treated with other antiviral or antibacterial treatments according to protocols recommended by the Ministry of Health (MOH) at the time. The primary outcomes were the length of hospital stay, need for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation. Overall survival was also assessed. 568 patients who received HCQ (treatment group) were compared with 207 patients who did not receive HCQ (control group). HCQ did not improve mortality in the treated group (7.7% vs. 7.2%). There were no significant differences in terms of duration of hospitalization, need for and time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation among the groups. Our study provides further evidence that HCQ treatment does not reduce mortality rates, length of hospital stay, admission and time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111254, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051488

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2, previously called a novel coronavirus, that broke out in the Wuhan city of China caused a significant number of morbidity and mortality in the world. It is spreading at peak levels since the first case reported and the need for vaccines is in immense demand globally. Numerous treatment and vaccination strategies that were previously employed for other pathogens including coronaviruses are now being been adopted to guide the formulation of new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Several vaccine targets can be utilized for the development of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. In this review, we highlighted the potential of various antigenic targets and other modes for formulating an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. There are a varying number of challenges encountered during developing the most effective vaccines, and measures for tackling such challenges will assist in fast pace development of vaccines. This review will give a concise overview of various aspects of the vaccine development process against SARS-CoV-2, including 1) potential antigen targets 2) different vaccination strategies from conventional to novel platforms, 3) ongoing clinical trials, 4) varying challenges encountered during developing the most effective vaccine and the futuristic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Development/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL