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1.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e066655, 2023 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252390

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study, The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Health in Early and Adult Life (SHINE), was to build on the landmark Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), a longitudinal birth cohort initiated in 1991, by conducting a health-focused follow-up of the now adult participants. This effort has produced an invaluable resource for the pursuit of life course research examining links between early life risk and resilience factors and adulthood health and disease risk. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 927 NICHD SECCYD participants available for recruitment in the current study, 705 (76.1%) participated in the study. Participants were between 26 and 31 years and living in diverse geographic locations throughout the USA. FINDINGS TO DATE: In descriptive analyses, the sample exhibited risk on health status indicators, especially related to obesity, hypertension and diabetes. Of particular concern, the prevalence of hypertension (29.4%) and diabetes (25.8%) exceeded national estimates in similar-age individuals. Health behaviour indicators generally tracked with the parameters of poor health status, showing a pattern of poor diet, low activity and disrupted sleep. The juxtaposition of the sample's relatively young age (mean=28.6 years) and high educational status (55.6% college educated or greater) with its poor health status is noteworthy, suggesting a dissociation between health and factors that are typically health protective. This is consistent with observed population health trends, which show a worsening of cardiometabolic health status in younger generations of Americans. FUTURE PLANS: The current study, SHINE, lays the groundwork for future analyses in which the uniquely robust measures collected as a part of the original NICHD SECCYD will be leveraged to pinpoint specific early life risk and resilience factors as well as the correlates and potential mechanisms accounting for variability in health and disease risk indicators in young adulthood.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.) , Adult , Child , Humans , Adolescent , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult , Child Care , Follow-Up Studies , Child Development
2.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 23(1): 26, 2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both short sleep duration and circadian rhythm misalignment are risk factors for metabolic dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The goal of this study is to examine how sleep duration and circadian alignment predict changes in cardiometabolic risk factors over a 12-month period, and test cognitive function and hedonic eating tendencies as potential mechanisms. METHODS: We will recruit a sample of 120 working aged adults with BMI 25-35 kg/m2 (overweight to class I obesity). The protocol includes 5 visits over a 12-month period. Study visits include wrist actigraphy to measure sleep behaviors, 24-h diet recalls, dim light melatonin collection, a computerized neurobehavioral assessment, eating in the absence of hunger task, and frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. DISCUSSION: The results of the TIME study will advance the understanding of how both short sleep duration and circadian misalignment contribute to behavioral aspects of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.Gov, NCT04759755 , registered retrospectively February 13, 2021.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Overweight , Sleep Duration , Longitudinal Studies , Retrospective Studies , Time and Motion Studies , Sleep , Circadian Rhythm , Obesity , Cognition
3.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(3): 1199-1211, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546285

ABSTRACT

Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States have been exacerbated by pre-existing inequities in resources and opportunities, leaving the most vulnerable to face a multitude of hardships. The goal of the current study was to characterise COVID-19-related stressful life events in specific life domains and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals who are more likely to experience such events. Participants (n = 372, 57% female) in a follow-up study of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development completed the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (June-August 2020) to assess COVID-19-related stressors. Sociodemographic factors (gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and wealth) were examined simultaneously as predictors of the number of stressful life events in separate categories of work/finances, home life, social activity, health and healthcare, adjusted for covariates (household size, community COVID-19 transmission risk). In negative binomial regression analyses, being female (vs. male) predicted a 31%, 64%, 13% and 94% increase in the number of stressful life events in domains of work/finances, home life, social activity and healthcare, respectively, whereas each one standard deviation increase in wealth predicted a 17%, 16% and 21% reduction in the number of stressful life events in domains of work/finances, COVID-19 infection and healthcare, respectively. Findings highlight the pronounced and far-reaching impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on women as well as the unique role wealth may play in lessening such impacts. This new knowledge may be leveraged to develop intervention and policy-related strategies to remediate impacts of COVID-19-related stressors on those most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(1): 45-49, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether the efficacy of a standard-of-care pediatric obesity treatment was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Analyses leveraged data from an ongoing pediatric obesity treatment trial involving 230 lower-income, urban children aged 6 to 12 years. Mixed-effects regression models compared children who participated in a 12-month weight-management intervention before versus during the COVID-19 pandemic on change from baseline in BMI z score (ΔzBMI) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. RESULTS: The observed pattern of ΔzBMI was significantly different before versus during the pandemic (χ2 = 22.73, p < 0.0001). Children treated before the pandemic maintained an average weight loss of -0.06 ΔzBMI at 12 months, whereas children treated during the pandemic steadily gained weight over time, averaging a net gain of 0.11 ΔzBMI at 12 months (χ2 = 34.99, p < 0.0001). Treatment session completion did not differ before versus during the pandemic (60.4% vs. 55.7%, respectively; p = 0.30) or account for differences in ΔzBMI. CONCLUSIONS: Similar reductions in intervention efficacy may be anticipated in other pediatric obesity treatment trials conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many families that have struggled with managing their child's weight during this period may need encouragement to continue engaging in structured weight management as society renormalizes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 83, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a crisis unprecedented in its size and scope. Yet studies of resilience suggest most individuals will successfully negotiate this challenge and some may even experience growth and positive change. Some evidence suggests that the capacity to enact positive change in the face of adversity may be shaped by early life experiences. METHODS: In a subset of 374 participants (57% female, mean age = 29 years) in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), a longitudinal, birth cohort, prospective models were tested to determine whether early life adversities in family and neighborhood contexts predict positive change events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Childhood family and neighborhood contexts were assessed using a combination of self-report questionnaires and US Census data. Adulthood positive change events (e.g., becoming more appreciative of things usually taken for granted) were assessed using the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (EPII). RESULTS: In regression analyses, neighborhood disadvantage in childhood, measured both by objective and subjective assessments, predicted a higher number of positive change events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (ß = .18, p = .004 and ß = .15, p = .006, respectively). Examination of the positive change event subscales showed neighborhood disadvantage in childhood predicted increases in events related to 'perspective taking and charitable giving' (ß = .20, p = .022 and ß = .17, p = .002, respectively) and improved 'social relationships' (ß = .18, p = .004 and ß = .13, p = .020, respectively), but not to positive 'health behaviors' (ps > .05). All associations were independent of sociodemographic factors and childhood family dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that neighborhood disadvantage in childhood may shape prosocial responses to stress in adulthood, potentially through early life adaptions to stress that are protective when facing adversity. There are several notable implications of the study findings. Although adversity in early life has clear negative impacts, it is possible that adversity experiences may also provide opportunities to develop adaptive strategies that foster resilience and growth when facing stress. Intervention efforts should consider leveraging such stress-adapted strengths to reduce the many negative impacts of early life adversity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Life Change Events , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Behav Med ; 28(6): 813-819, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Executive functions (EF) support engagement in goal-directed behaviors, including several health behaviors. Stressful and cognitively demanding events can disrupt EFs and interfere with health behavior, possibly to a greater extent in those with preexisting EF deficits. This study examined the association between preexisting EF deficits and subsequent negative changes in eating patterns, physical activity, sedentariness, and alcohol/substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Participants were 374 young adults in a follow-up study of the longitudinal, multisite Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD). Preexisting EF deficits were assessed with the Barkley Deficits in Executive Function Scales-Short Form, and personally impactful negative changes in four health behaviors (physical activity, unhealthy eating, sedentary time, alcohol/substance use) during the COVID-19 pandemic were subsequently assessed with the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory. RESULTS: In ordered logistic regression models, higher preexisting total EF deficits were associated with greater negative impactful changes in physical activity and unhealthy eating, independent of sociodemographic variables, obesity, and (as relevant) accelerometer-based physical activity and pre-COVID-19 diet quality. Socioeconomic status moderated the association between total EF deficits and impactful change in alcohol/substance use, with EF deficits linked to greater impactful change in alcohol/substance use only in higher socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSION: Individuals with preexisting EF deficits appear more vulnerable to the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on several key health behaviors. As the pandemic unfolds, strategies may be needed to identify those with EF deficits (e.g., screening tools) and provide them with tailored support for chronic disease risk reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Executive Function , Adolescent , Follow-Up Studies , Health Behavior , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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