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1.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125783

ABSTRACT

Background Many countries have recommended using face masks for the general population in public places to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. This study aimed to assess the effects of socioeconomic status on face mask use among pedestrians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ahvaz, southwest Iran in August 2020. A total of 10,440 pedestrians have been studied from 92 neighborhoods of the city. Three socioeconomic indicators including Land price, Literacy rate, and the Employment rate for each neighborhood were used in this study. Analysis of Covariance and partial correlation coefficients were applied to assess the relationship between prevalence rates of mask usage and SES indicators. Results The mean ± SD age of the pedestrians was 32.2 ± 15.1 years. Of 10,440 observed participants, 67.9% were male. The overall prevalence of face mask usage was 45.6%. The prevalence of mask usage in older people and women was significantly higher than the others. The three assessed socioeconomic indicators were directly correlated to the prevalence of mask usage at individual and neighborhood levels. Conclusion We found that literacy had the strongest correlation with the prevalence of mask usage compared to the land price and employment rate among the three assessed SES indicators. Hence, it can be concluded that the social component of socioeconomic status has a greater effect on mask usage by people than the economic component of socioeconomic status.

2.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(1): E12-E18, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955101

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has become a grave threat to public health. Along with vaccination, preventive behaviors are still an important part in controlling in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aimed to investigate health beliefs and sample characteristics associated with COVID-19 preventive health behaviors among an Iranian sample. Preventive behaviors are still an important part in controlling in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, using a multi-stage randomized sampling method. Participants (N = 250 males and 236 females) were recruited from health centers in Saveh, Iran. Self-administered questionnaires included sociodemographic information, health behaviors, and constructs associated with the Health Beliefs Model (HBM). Data were analyzed using independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and multiple regression with significance level set at α ≤ 0.05. Results: Perceived disease susceptibility (ß = 0.44, P< 0.001), self-efficacy to enact preventative behaviors (ß = 0.24, P < 0.01), education (ß = 0.20, P < 0.001), non-smoking status (ß = 0.14, P < 0.01), marital status (ß = 0.10, P < 0.03), and perceived barriers to disease preventative behaviors (ß = -0.10, P < 0.04) were important predictors of prevention practices for COVID-19, and accounted for 61.4% (adjusted R2) of the variance associated with preventive behavior for COVID-19. Conclusion: As there is accepted therapy for COVID-19, it is especially important to control COVID-19 through behavior change. Results indicate that two behavioral constructs that have the most impact on prevention are perceived disease susceptibility and self-efficacy. Therefore, public health initiatives are needed to enhance perceived susceptibility to the disease and improve self-efficacy to perform preventative behaviors in spite of perceived barriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 36: 67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893727

ABSTRACT

Background: Transmission routes of COVID-19 have been well identified and documented. Considering the high prevalence of the Covid-19 and its impacts on the population, this study aimed to assess the status of preventive behaviors against coronavirus infection and estimate the odds of its transmission routes among people. Methods: A comparative study was conducted from March to April 2021. A total of 1256 participants were randomly selected, including 262 COVID-19 patients and 994 healthy people from 10 counties in Khuzestan, southwest Iran. A two-part questionnaire was used for data collection that included items on demographic and adherence to preventive behaviors. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software SPSS 18.0.0 applying logistic regression. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.60±11.48 years (female: 36.49±11.15 years; male: 38.86±11.74 years). The results showed that having contact with infected patient at home (OR = 4.90, 95%CI = 3.32-7.25), going to the hospital for not-necessary medical reasons (OR = 4.47, 95%CI = 3.05-6.55), leaving home for essential daily services (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.63-3.81), and going to doctors' office (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.20-2.63) could increase the odds of infection. Conclusion: The findings suggest that different factors are responsible for the increased spread of the Covid-19. Indeed, since the intervention for every single factor will have a small contribution to reducing the prevalence of the disease, it seems essential to design comprehensive interventions while emphasizing isolation and contacts tracing. The study provides evidence for multi-level and multi-faceted policy and interventions for promoting adherence to COVID-19 preventive behaviors.

4.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(4): 249-257, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836429

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide public health emergency. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Saveh city, Islamic Republic of Iran in 2020. Methods: In this descriptive analytical research, 3181 patients suspected of having COVID-19 who visited Saveh medical centres were investigated. Patients were confirmed with COVID-19 using polymerase chain reaction testing. Data on sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the patients were collected using a validated form through interviews and medical records. The chi-squared, t and Fisher exact tests were used to assess differences in sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics between patients with positive and negative polymerase chain reaction results. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between independent variables and death from COVID-19. Results: About half the patients (48.3%) had a history of chronic disease. Diabetes (16.2%), high blood pressure (14.8%) and cardiovascular disease (12.4%) were the most prevalent chronic diseases among patients who were confirmed positive for COVID-19. Risk factors for death among confirmed COVID-19 patients were: intubation (odds ratio (OR) = 8.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.15-15.63), age ≥ 80 years (OR = 5.81; 95% CI: 1.91-17.60), oxygen saturation < 93% (OR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.51-4.08), diabetes (OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.00-3.54) and shortness of breath (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.02-2.82). Conclusion: Given the greater risks of contracting and dying from COVID-19 in certain groups of patients, health education programmes targeting these groups are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1934, 2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has become one of the biggest challenges to global health and economy. The present study aimed to explore the factors related to preventive health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Khuzestan Province, South of Iran, using the Health Belief Model (HBM). METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between July 2020 and September 2020. A total of 1090 people from Khuzestan province participated in the study. The data collection method included a multistage cluster sampling method with a random selection of provincial of health centers. The questionnaire collected socio-demographic information and HBM constructs (e.g., perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits and barriers, cues to action, and COVID-19 preventive behaviors). Data were analyzed using ANOVA, t-test, hierarchical multiple linear regression, and SPSS version 22. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 35.53 ± 11.53, more than half of them were female (61.6%) and married (65.3). The results showed that 27% of the variance in the COVID-19 preventive behaviors was explained by HBM constructs. The regression analysis indicated that female gender (ß = 0.11), perceived benefits (ß = 0.10), perceived barriers (ß = - 0.18), external cues to action (ß = 0.25), and internal cues to action (ß = 0.12) were significantly associated with COVID-19 preventive behaviors (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Designing an educational intervention on the basis of HBM might be considered as a framework for the correction of beliefs and adherence to COVID-19 behavior. Health information campaigns need to (1) emphasize the benefits of preventive behaviors including avoiding the likelihood of getting a chronic disease and complications of the disease, (2) highlight the tips and advice to overcome the barriers (3) provide cues to action by means of showing various reminders in social media (4) focusing on adoption of COVID-19-related preventive behaviors, especially among men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Brain Behav ; 11(11): e2370, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427065

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Aside from personal beliefs, young adults' intention to uptake the COVID-19 vaccine can be influenced by their fear of COVID-19 and perceived infectability of COVID-19. The present study incorporated fear of COVID-19 and perceived infectability with the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to form an expanded TPB to analyze factors affecting Pakistani young adults' intentions to uptake the COVID-vaccine in Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted and recruited participants from Pakistani social media users. The proposed extended TPB model was examined by using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: A total of 1034 individuals replied to the survey. The three factors of the original theory of planned behavior and the fear of COVID-19 were positively related to their intention to uptake COVID-19 vaccination (r = 0.25-0.66). Moreover, the perceived infectability positively influenced the three theories of planned behavioral factors and the fear of COVID-19 (r = 0.27-0.60), also affecting the participants' intentions to uptake COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived infectability was positively related to the participants' intentions to uptake COVID-19 vaccination, and perceived behavioral control was the strongest mediator. More evidence-based information concerning treatments and COVID-19 vaccination are needed to encourage individuals to uptake the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Pakistan , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , Young Adult
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 133, 2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries have recommended the use of face masks for general population in public places to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of face mask usage and investigate about different types of face mask and their distribution among pedestrians in southwest Iran during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2020 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. Using a multistage sampling method, a total of 10,440 pedestrians selected from 8 urban districts and 92 neighborhoods of the city. The data gathered by observation method. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to describe the variables. Chi-square test, fisher exact test and Chi-square for trend used to assess relationship between two categorical variables. We used unconditional logistic regression model to control confounders. RESULTS: The most common age group was 10 to 39 years and 67.9% of the participants were male. The overall prevalence of face mask usage was 45.6% (95% CI, 44.6-46.5). In general, as the age increased, the prevalence of face mask use significantly increased (p for trend < 0.001). Women used face masks significantly higher than men (60.2% vs. 38.7%, p < 0.001). Among the pedestrians who used the mask, 75.6% wore facemask correctly. The most common type of facemask used by the pedestrians were surgical (medical) masks (63.8%). In total, the prevalence of facemask usage was significantly higher during a.m. (49.4%) compared to p.m. (43.9%), (p < 0.001). Besides, in our study, 1.7 and 0.3% of Pedestrians had worn gloves and shielded respectively. Women used shields and gloves significantly higher than men (3.6% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.001). Also, women used shields more than men (0.5% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.036). CONCLUSION: We concluded that the prevalence rate of face mask use in Ahvaz was fairly low especially in men and younger people. Hence, the observed rates probably cannot protect the community against COVID-19 spread. Therefore, it is important to implement educational programs as well as to establish laws and regulations governing the use of face masks in public places.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pedestrians , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Young Adult
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