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Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526851


There have been more than 150 million confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 since the beginning of the pandemic in 2019. By June 2021, the mortality from such infections approached 3.9 million people. Despite the availability of a number of vaccines which provide protection against this virus, the evolution of new viral variants, inconsistent availability of the vaccine around the world, and vaccine hesitancy, in some countries, makes it unreasonable to rely on mass vaccination alone to combat this pandemic. Consequently, much effort is directed to identifying potential antiviral treatments. Marine brominated tyrosine alkaloids are recognized to have antiviral potential. We test here the antiviral capacity of fourteen marine brominated tyrosine alkaloids against five different target proteins from SARS-CoV-2, including main protease (Mpro) (PDB ID: 6lu7), spike glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6VYB), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (PDB ID: 6VYO), membrane glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6M17), and non-structural protein 10 (nsp10) (PDB ID: 6W4H). These marine alkaloids, particularly the hexabrominated compound, fistularin-3, shows promising docking interactions with predicted binding affinities (S-score = -7.78, -7.65, -6.39, -6.28, -8.84 Kcal/mol) for the main protease (Mpro) (PDB ID: 6lu7), spike glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6VYB), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (PDB ID: 6VYO), membrane glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6M17), and non-structural protein 10 (nsp10) (PDB ID: 6W4H), respectively, where it forms better interactions with the protein pockets than the native interaction. It also shows promising molecular dynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity profiles. As such, further exploration of the antiviral properties of fistularin-3 against SARS-CoV-2 is merited.

Alkaloids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Halogenation , Humans , Isoxazoles/chemistry , Isoxazoles/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Tyrosine/analogs & derivatives , Tyrosine/chemistry , Tyrosine/metabolism
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148287


The huge global expansion of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-corona virus-2 is an extraordinary public health emergency. The unavailability of specific treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infection necessitates the focus of all scientists in this direction. The reported antiviral activities of guanidine alkaloids encouraged us to run a comprehensive in silico binding affinity of fifteen guanidine alkaloids against five different proteins of SARS-CoV-2, which we investigated. The investigated proteins are COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) (PDB ID: 6lu7), spike glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6VYB), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (PDB ID: 6VYO), membrane glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6M17), and a non-structural protein (nsp10) (PDB ID: 6W4H). The binding energies for all tested compounds indicated promising binding affinities. A noticeable superiority for the pentacyclic alkaloids particularly, crambescidin 786 (5) and crambescidin 826 (13) has been observed. Compound 5 exhibited very good binding affinities against Mpro (ΔG = -8.05 kcal/mol), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (ΔG = -6.49 kcal/mol), and nsp10 (ΔG = -9.06 kcal/mol). Compound 13 showed promising binding affinities against Mpro (ΔG = -7.99 kcal/mol), spike glycoproteins (ΔG = -6.95 kcal/mol), and nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (ΔG = -8.01 kcal/mol). Such promising activities might be attributed to the long ω-fatty acid chain, which may play a vital role in binding within the active sites. The correlation of c Log P with free binding energies has been calculated. Furthermore, the SAR of the active compounds has been clarified. The Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicity (ADMET) studies were carried out in silico for the 15 compounds; most examined compounds showed optimal to good range levels of ADMET aqueous solubility, intestinal absorption and being unable to pass blood brain barrier (BBB), non-inhibitors of CYP2D6, non-hepatotoxic, and bind plasma protein with a percentage less than 90%. The toxicity of the tested compounds was screened in silico against five models (FDA rodent carcinogenicity, carcinogenic potency TD50, rat maximum tolerated dose, rat oral LD50, and rat chronic lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL)). All compounds showed expected low toxicity against the tested models. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were also carried out to confirm the stable binding interactions of the most promising compounds, 5 and 13, with their targets. In conclusion, the examined 15 alkaloids specially 5 and 13 showed promising docking, ADMET, toxicity and MD results which open the door for further investigations for them against SARS-CoV-2.

Alkaloids/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Porifera/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Blood-Brain Barrier , Crystallography, X-Ray , Ligands , Membrane Glycoproteins/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Rats , Software , Viral Proteases/chemistry
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-14, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145109


COVID-19 also known as SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in late 2019 and its worldwide pandemic spread has taken the world by surprise. The minute-to-minute increasing coronavirus cases (>85 M) and progressive deaths (≈1.8 M) calls for finding a cure to this devastating pandemic. While there have been many attempts to find biologically active molecules targeting SARS-CoV-2 for treatment of this viral infection, none has found a way to the clinic yet. In this study, a 3-feature structure-based pharmacophore model was designed for SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro) that plays a vital role in the viral cellular penetration. High throughput virtual screening of the lead-like ZINC library was then performed to find a potent inhibitor employing the predesigned pharmacophore. In-silico pharmacokinetics/toxicity prediction study was subsequently applied towards the best hits. Finally, a 50 ns molecular dynamics simulation was carried out for the best hit and compared to the co-crystallized ligand where the hit compound displayed high binding and comparable interactions. The results identified new hits for SARS-CoV-2 MPro inhibition showing good docking score, pharmacokinetics and toxicity profile, drug-likeness, high binding energy in addition to a promising synthetic accessibility. Identifying new small compounds as potential leads for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 is a very important step towards designing a synthesizing of promising drug candidates.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.