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BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 176, 2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793973


BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is still a global public health problem contributing for under-five morbidity and mortality. The case is similar in Ethiopia in which severe acute malnutrition is the major contributor to mortality being an underlying cause for nearly 45% of under-five deaths. However, there is no recent evidence that shows the time to death and public health importance of oxygen saturation and chest in drawing in the study area. Therefore, estimated time to death and its predictors can provide an input for program planners and decision-makers. METHODS: A facility -based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 488 severe acute malnourished under-five children admitted from the 1st of January 2016 to the 30th of December 2019. The study participants were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were entered in to Epi-Data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version15 statistical software for further analysis. The Kaplan Meier was used to estimate cumulative survival probability and a log-rank test was used to compare the survival time between different categories of explanatory variables. The Cox-proportional hazard regression model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality. P-value< 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: Out of the total 488 randomly selected charts of children with severe acute malnutrition, 476 records were included in the final analysis. A total of 54(11.34%) children died with an incidence rate of 9.1death /1000 person- days. Failed appetite test (AHR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.26, 4.67), altered consciousness level at admission (AHR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.08, 4.67), oxygen saturation below 90% (AHR: 3.3; 95%CI: 1.40, 7.87), edema (AHR 2.9; 95%CI: 1.45, 5.66) and HIV infection (AHR: 2.8; 95%CI: 1.24, 6.36) were predictors of mortality for children diagnosed with severe acute malnutrition. CONCLUSION: The overall survival status of severe acute malnourished children was low as compared to national sphere standards and previous reports in the literature. The major predictors of mortality were oxygen saturation below 90%, altered consciousness, HIV infection, edema and failed appetite test. Therefore, early screening of complications, close follow up and regular monitoring of sever acute malnourished children might improve child survival rate.

HIV Infections , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Child , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257897, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438353


BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, viral diseases continue to emerge and represent a serious issue for public health. The elderly and those with underlying chronic diseases are more likely to become severe cases. Our study sets out to present in-depth exploration and analyses of the community's risk perception and barriers to the practice of COVID-19 prevention measures in South Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A qualitative study was done in three districts of South Gondar Zone. Community key informants and health extension workers were selected purposely for in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. The interviews were conducted by maintaining WHO recommendations for social distancing and use of appropriate personal protective equipment. The sample size for the study depended on the theoretical saturation of the data at the time of data collection. The qualitative data generated from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was transcribed verbatim and translated into English language and thematically analyzed using open code software version 4.02. RESULTS: Three main themes and five categories emerged from the narrations of the participants regarding the perceived barriers for the practice of COVID-19 prevention measures. A total of 9 community key informants (5 women development armies (HDA), 2 health extension workers (HEW), and 2 religious leaders participated in the in-depth interview, while two focus group discussions (7 participants in each round) were conducted among purposely selected community members. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 70 years with the median age of 48 years. The major identified barriers for practicing COVID-19 prevention measures were the presence of strong cultural and religious practices, perceiving that the disease does not affect the young, misinformation about the disease, and lack of trust in the prevention measures. CONCLUSIONS: Socio-cultural, religious, and economic related barriers were identified from the participant's narratives for the practice of COVID-19 prevention measures in south Gondar Zone. Our findings suggest the need to strengthen community awareness and education programs about the prevention measures of COVID-19 and increase diagnostic facilities with strong community-based surveillance to control the transmission of the pandemic.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors