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2.
Arch Iran Med ; 25(2): 91-97, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we assessed the prevalence of positive rapid detection test (RDT) among healthcare workers (HCWs) and evaluated the role of personal protective equipment (PPE) and knowledge of the pandemic. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2020 and October 2020 in a tertiary referral center (Tehran, Iran), we enrolled 117 physicians, nurses, and other HCWs (OHCWs)-aides, helpers, and medical waste handlers-regularly working in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards. The RDT kit was utilized to reveal recent infection; data on demographics, PPE use and availability, and knowledge of the pandemic was collected through pre-defined questionnaires. RESULTS: Overall, 24.8% (95% CI: 16.8-32.7%) of HCWs had positive RDTs. The more PPE was available and used, the less the chance of positive RDT was (OR: 0.63 [0.44-0.91], P = 0.014 and 0.63 [0.41-0.96], P = 0.030). The same was true for the knowledge of prevention and adhering to preventive rules (OR: 0.44 [0.24-0.81], P = 0.008 and 0.47 [0.25-0.89], P = 0.020). OHCWs had the highest prevalence of positive RDT, while they had more shifts per month, less accessibility to PPE, and less knowledge of the pandemic than physicians. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that HCWs should have a thorough knowledge of the pandemic along with using PPE properly and rationally. Furthermore, adhering to preventive regulations plays a crucial role in HCWs' safety. It is also noteworthy that shifts should be arranged logically to manage exposures, with a special attention being paid to OHCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 21(1): 414, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590012
4.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(3): e15283, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583585

ABSTRACT

We report two cases of lichen planus following COVID-19 vaccination in two middle-aged women, where the first patient presented with lichenplanopilaris (LPP) relapse and development of lichen planus 14 days after the second dose of AstraZeneca vaccine, and the other patient who had a previous scattered lesion of LP which extended and increased in severity after the first and second dose of Sinopharm. The suggested cause could be due to immune dysregulation and up regulation of T cell lymphocytes which was triggered after COVID-19 vaccination. What supports our hypothesis that LP had occurred due to COVID-19 vaccination, is that one of the patients responded successfully to Metronidazole. This means that the infection process after vaccination could be the cause in aggravating LP. To add, one of the suggested mechanisms for the appearance of LP or reactivation of a dormant LPP can be cytotoxic CD8 T-lymphocytes which increase the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-5 cytokines and may also result in basal keratinocytes' apoptosis leading to cutaneous manifestations. This was supported by the efficacy of Tofacitinib that was used in the other patient who presented with reactivation of LPP in addition to LP. Tofacitinib decrease the number of T cell infiltration and adjust IFN expression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lichen Planus , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Lichen Planus/diagnosis , Lichen Planus/drug therapy , Lichen Planus/etiology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Acta Biomed ; 91(4): e2020147, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059575

ABSTRACT

Background The sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 disease originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. There have been few reports of the clinical course of the disease, but detailed information on the risk factors for increased hospital stay and mortality is not available. In this study, we aimed to present the details of 53 confirmed COVID-19 cases to share the clinical course and the risk factors for longer hospital stay and death. Methods In this study, we enrolled fifty-three patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection from a referral academic hospital in Tehran, Iran admitted between March and April 2020. Patients' demographics, laboratory tests, treatments, length of hospital stay (LOHS), and final outcome were recorded and analyzed. Results Fifty-three patients were included in this study. The higher LOHS was associated with clinical symptoms, including hemoptysis (IRR= 0.73, P-value= 0.02), diarrhea (IRR= 0.78, P-value= 0.01), headache (IRR= 0.81, P-value= 0.05), and dry cough (IRR= 0.82, P-value= 0.05). Mortality was associated with older age(Odds ratio=1.148, 95%CI=1.032-1.276), lower calcium level (Odds ratio=0.087, 95%CI=0.010-0.788), lower serum albumin (Odds ratio=0.036, 95%CI=0.002-0.655), as well as increased level of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (Odds ratio=1.468, 95%CI=1.086-1.985), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (Odds ratio=1.004, 95%CI=1.000-1.007), and urea (Odds ratio=1.023, 95%CI=1.006-1.039).  Conclusion Our study identified that decreased levels of O2saturation, platelet count, calcium, albumin, and increased NLR, LDH, urea, and old age were correlated with mortality. Also, LOHS was significantly associated with clinical findings, such as hemoptysis and diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Rom J Intern Med ; 58(4): 242-250, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024485

ABSTRACT

Background. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially detected in Wuhan city, China. Chest CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia have been investigated mostly in China, and there is very little information available on the radiological findings occurring in other populations. In this study, we aimed to describe the characteristics of chest CT findings in confirmed cases of COVID-19 pneumonia in an Iranian population, based on a time classification.Methods. Eighty-nine patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, confirmed by a real-time RT-PCR test, who were admitted to non-ICU wards and underwent a chest CT scan were retrospectively enrolled. Descriptive evaluation of radiologic findings was performed using a classification based on the time interval between the initiation of the symptoms and chest CT-scan.Results. The median age of patients was 58.0 years, and the median time interval from the onset of symptoms to CT scan evaluation was 7 days. Most patients had bilateral (94.4%) and multifocal (91.0%) lung involvement with peripheral distribution (60.7%). Also, most patients showed involvement of all five lobes (77.5%). Ground-glass opacities (GGO) (84.3%) and mixed GGO with consolidation (80.9%) were the most common identified patterns. We also found that as the time interval between symptoms and CT scan evaluation increased, the predominant pattern changed from GGO to mixed pattern and then to elongated-containing and band-like-opacities-containing pattern; on the other hand, the percentage of lung involvement increased.Conclusions. Bilateral multifocal GGO, and mixed GGO with consolidation were the most common patterns of COVID-19 pneumonia in our study. However, these patterns might change according to the time interval from symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Iran , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
7.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(8): e160921189885, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007078

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was announced as a pandemic in March 2020. Different diagnostic laboratory tests have been used to detect the infection. Each diagnostic tool, such as Chest Computed tomography (CT) imaging, genome sequencing, nucleic acid amplification methods, whole genome sequencing, microarray, and serology testing have several advantages and disadvantages. Nucleic acid amplification methods are better diagnostic tools for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in early stages of the infection, while serological tests are more appropriate for the recognition of previously infected patients. In this review, we will briefly consider each diagnostic method, and discuss its pros and cons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Serologic Tests
8.
Neurol Sci ; 42(2): 437-444, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002104

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has struck many countries and caused a great number of infected cases and death. Healthcare system across all countries is dealing with the increasing medical, social, and legal issues caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the standards of care are being altered. Admittedly, neurology units have been influenced greatly since the first days, as aggressive policies adopted by many hospitals caused eventual shut down of numerous neurologic wards. Considering these drastic alterations, traditional ethical principles have to be integrated with state-of-the-art ethical considerations. This review will consider different ethical aspects of care in neurologic patients during COVID-19 and how this challenging situation has affected standards of care in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures/ethics , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurology/ethics , Palliative Care/ethics , Psychosocial Support Systems , Respiration, Artificial/ethics , Triage/ethics , Humans
11.
Pathol Res Pract ; 216(9): 153097, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634715

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), first appeared in December 2019, in Wuhan, China and evolved into a pandemic. As Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is one of the potential target receptors for SARS-CoV-2 in human body, which is expressed in different tissues, multiple organs might become affected. In the initial phase of the current pandemic, a handful of post-mortem case-series revealed COVID-19-related pathological changes in various organs. Although pathological examination is not a feasible method of diagnosis, it can elucidate pathological changes, pathogenesis of the disease, and the cause of death in COVID-19 cases. Herein, we thoroughly reviewed multiple organs including lung, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, skin, heart, blood, spleen, lymph nodes, brain, blood vessels, and placenta in terms of COVID-19-related pathological alterations. Also, these findings were compared with SARS and MERS infection, wherever applicable. We found a diverse range of pathological changes, some of which resemble those found in SARS and MERS.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Humans , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
12.
13.
Dermatitis ; 31(4): 233-237, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611904

ABSTRACT

In-hospital transmission is one of the main routes of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) spreading among health care workers (HCWs) who are the frontline fighters. However, coming into contact with COVID-19-positive patients is unavoidable. Therefore, hand hygiene is of utmost importance for the prevention of COVID-19 among HCWs. This purpose can be achieved by applying alcohol-based hand rubs, washing hands properly with soap and water, and applying other antiseptic agents. Nevertheless, regular hand hygiene could also be challenging, because water, detergents, and disinfectants may predispose HCWs to hand dermatitis. The current article reviews the risk factors for the development of hand dermatitis, with further focus on the most common agents used among HCWs. In addition, the risk of occupational hand dermatitis for each agent is evaluated to increase awareness of this common condition. Finally, some recommendations are discussed to reduce the effect of hand dermatitis on HCWs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disinfectants/adverse effects , Health Personnel , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Soaps/adverse effects
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