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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066015

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Some people with COVID-19 develop a series of symptoms that last for several months after infection, known as Long COVID. Although these symptoms interfere with people's daily functioning and quality of life, few studies have focused on neurobehavioral symptoms and the risk factors associated with their development; (2) Methods: 1001 adults from 34 countries who had previously tested positive for COVID-19 completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory reporting the symptoms before their COVID-19 diagnosis, during the COVID-19 infection, and currently; (3) Results: Participants reported large-sized increases before vs. during COVID-19 in all domains. Participants reported a medium-sized improvement (during COVID-19 vs. now) in somatic symptoms, a small-sized improvement in affective symptoms, and very minor/no improvement in cognitive symptoms. The risk factors for increased neurobehavioral symptoms were: being female/trans, unemployed, younger age, low education, having another chronic health condition, greater COVID-19 severity, greater number of days since the COVID-19 diagnosis, not having received oxygen therapy, and having been hospitalized. Additionally, participants from North America, Europe, and Central Asia reported higher levels of symptoms across all domains relative to Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa; (4) Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms after COVID-19, especially targeting the higher-risk groups identified. General rehabilitation strategies and evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation are needed in both the acute and Long COVID phases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Oxygen , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sleep Health ; 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042140

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has infected millions of people worldwide, with growing evidence that individuals with a history of infection may continue to show persistent post-COVID symptoms (long COVID). The aim of this study was to investigate sleep health in an international sample of individuals who reported previously testing positive for COVID-19. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Online survey distributed online between March and June 2021. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1001 individuals who reported a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 across different geographical regions, including North and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported sleep health, using the Regulatory Satisfaction Alertness Timing Efficiency Duration scale, as recalled before a COVID-19 diagnosis and also reported currently. RESULTS: Individuals reported worse overall current sleep health, with lower ratings across the 6 dimensions of sleep health (sleep regularity, satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, and duration) compared to their ratings as recalled before COVID-19 infection. Greater severity of COVID-19 symptoms was the strongest predictor of poor current sleep health (P < .001), independent of demographics, presence of a pre-existing chronic health condition, and time since infection. Poor current sleep health was associated with poorer current quality of life (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Poor current sleep health is evident in individuals with a history of COVID-19, particularly those with more severe symptoms at the time of their COVID-19 infection and is associated with a poorer quality of life. Clinicians and researchers should assess sleep health in COVID-19 patients and investigate long-term associations with their mental and physical health, as well as potential benefits of improving sleep in this population.

3.
The Counseling Psychologist ; : 00110000211068112, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1741780

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has upended life like few other events in modern history, with differential impacts on varying population groups. This study examined trauma-related distress among 6,882 adults ages 18 to 94 years old in 59 countries during April to May 2020. More than two-thirds of participants reported clinically significant trauma-related distress. Increased distress was associated with unemployment;identifying as transgender, nonbinary, or a cisgender woman;being from a higher income country;current symptoms and positive diagnosis of COVID-19;death of a loved one;restrictive government-imposed isolation;financial difficulties;and food insecurity. Other factors associated with distress included working with potentially infected individuals, care needs at home, a difficult transition to working from home, conflict in the home, separation from loved ones, and event restrictions. Latin American and Caribbean participants reported more trauma-related distress than participants from Europe and Central Asia. Findings inform treatment efforts and highlight the need to address trauma-related distress to avoid long-term mental health consequences.

4.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 204, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with disabilities (PwD) have been facing multiple health, social, and economic disparities during the COVID-19 pandemic, stemming from structural disparities experienced for long time. This paper aims to present the PREparedness, RESponse and SySTemic transformation (PRE-RE-SyST): a model for a disability-inclusive pandemic responses and systematic disparities reduction. METHODS: Scoping review with a thematic analysis was conducted on the literature published up to mid-September 2020, equating to the initial stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Seven scientific databases and three preprint databases were searched to identify empirical or perspective papers addressing health and socio-economic disparities experienced by PwD as well as reporting actions to address them. Snowballing searches and experts' consultation were also conducted. Two independent reviewers made eligibility decisions and performed data extractions on any action or recommended action to address disparities. A thematic analysis was then used for the model construction, informed by a systems-thinking approach (i.e., the Iceberg Model). RESULTS: From 1027 unique references, 84 were included in the final analysis. The PRE-RE-SyST model articulates a four-level strategic action to: 1) Respond to prevent or reduce disability disparities during a pandemic crisis; 2) Prepare ahead for pandemic and other crises responses; 3) Design systems and policies for a structural disability-inclusiveness; and 4) Transform society's cultural assumptions about disability. 'Simple rules' and literature-based examples on how these strategies can be deployed are provided. CONCLUSION: The PRE-RE-SyST model articulates main strategies, 'simple rules' and possible means whereby public health authorities, policy-makers, and other stakeholders can address disability disparities in pandemic crises, and beyond. Beyond immediate pandemic responses, disability-inclusiveness is needed to develop everyday equity-oriented policies and practices that can transform societies towards greater resiliency, as a whole, to pandemic and other health and social emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Pandemics , Public Health Practice , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Models, Organizational , Pandemics/prevention & control
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335149

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: There is strong evidence in the literature that women experience psychological disorders at significantly higher rates than men. The higher rates of psychological disorders in women may partly be attributable to gender differences in response to stressors and coping styles. The objective of this study was to contribute to the growing body of literature investigating gender differences in mental health outcomes and coping styles during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in a large sample of individuals from 59 countries with variable demographic and socio-cultural characteristics. Materials and Methods: Survey data were collected from the general population following a snowball sampling method, and the survey was promoted through social media platforms and mailing lists. Participants included 6882 individuals from the general population from 59 countries around the world. A combination of both standardized and adapted measures was used to create a survey, originally in English and then translated to Spanish, Italian, French, German, and Turkish. Results: Compared with men, women presented with higher levels of trauma-related distress; had a harder time decompressing; were more depressed, anxious and stressed; showed decreased frustration tolerance and reported lower quality of sleep and an increased likelihood of taking sleep medication or other natural sleep remedies. Overall, women tended to be more vulnerable during the pandemic in developing symptoms consistent with various forms of mental disorders such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic distress. However, they also were more likely than men to use a variety of adaptive coping strategies, including concentrating on doing something about the situation and getting emotional support from others. Conclusions: A high prevalence of mood symptoms was noted among women. In addition to meeting the physical health needs of the population, emphasis needs to be given to mental health and the prevention of psychiatric disorders, particularly in women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Anxiety , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259503

ABSTRACT

People with disabilities may be disproportionally affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We synthesize the literature on broader health and social impacts on people with disabilities arising from lockdown-related measures. METHODS: Scoping review with thematic analysis. Up to mid-September 2020, seven scientific databases and three pre-print servers were searched to identify empirical or perspective papers addressing lockdown-related disparities experienced by people with disabilities. Snowballing searches and experts' consultation also occurred. Two independent reviewers took eligibility decisions and performed data extractions. RESULTS: Out of 1026 unique references, 85 addressed lockdown-related disparities experienced by people with disabilities. Ten primary and two central themes were identified: (1) Disrupted access to healthcare (other than for COVID-19); (2) Reduced physical activity leading to health and functional decline; (3) From physical distance and inactivity to social isolation and loneliness; (4) Disruption of personal assistance and community support networks; (5) Children with disabilities disproportionally affected by school closures; (6) Psychological consequences of disrupted routines, activities, and support; (7) Family and informal caregiver burden and stress; (8) Risks of maltreatment, violence, and self-harm; (9) Reduced employment and/or income exacerbating disparities; and (10) Digital divide in access to health, education, and support services. Lack of disability-inclusive response and emergency preparedness and structural, pre-pandemic disparities were the central themes. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown-related measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic can disproportionally affect people with disabilities with broader impact on their health and social grounds. Lack of disability-inclusive response and emergency preparedness and pre-pandemic disparities created structural disadvantages, exacerbated during the pandemic. Both structural disparities and their pandemic ramifications require the development and implementation of disability-inclusive public health and policy measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224024

ABSTRACT

Despite older adults' extremely high vulnerability to COVID-19 complications and death, few studies have examined how personal characteristics and the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted the mental health of older adults at the global level. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among demographics, COVID-19 life impacts, and depression and anxiety in adults aged 60 and older from 33 countries. A sample of 823 older adults aged 60-94 and residing in 33 countries completed a 10-min online survey following recruitment from mailing lists and social media. Being separated from and having conflicts with loved ones predicted both anxiety and depression, as did residing in a country with higher income. Getting medical treatment for severe symptoms of COVID-19 and having decreased work responsibilities predicted depression, but adjustment to working from home and younger age predicted both depression and anxiety. Participants from Europe and Central Asia reported higher depression than those from all other regions and higher anxiety than those from Latin America and the Caribbean. The COVID-19 pandemic has had serious deleterious effects on the mental health of older adults worldwide. The current findings have direct implications for mental health services that may be delivered to older adults to help facilitate healthy psychological adjustment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Caribbean Region , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Europe , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194648

ABSTRACT

This study aims to synthesize the literature on any disproportionate health risks or consequences of a COVID-19 infection for people with disabilities. Scoping review with a descriptive thematic analysis was carried out. Up to mid-September 2020, seven scientific databases and three preprint servers were searched to identify empirical or perspective papers. Snowballing searches and expert' consultations also took place. Two independent reviewers were used for the screenings and data extractions. Of 1027 references, 58 were included, 15 of which were empirical articles. The thematic analysis showed that: (1) People with disabilities living in residential or long-term care facilities were more likely to have greater infection rates; (2) Intersecting mediators of greater infection risks were multiple (e.g., lack of accessible information); (3) People with disabilities often face greater health problems when infected; and (4) Unethical disadvantages in the rationing of lifesaving and critical care can be experienced by people with disabilities. Conclusions: Beyond any health-related vulnerabilities (e.g., comorbidity rates), multiple yet modifiable environmental factors can provide disproportionate health risks and consequences of a COVID-19 infection for people with disabilities. Public health and policy measures must prevent or reduce modifiable environmental risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sleep Health ; 7(2): 134-142, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 escalated into a global pandemic affecting countries around the world. As communities shut down to reduce disease spread, all aspects of life have been altered, including sleep. This study investigated changes in sleep patterns and correlates of sleep health in a global sample and examined relationships between sleep health and psychological distress. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTINGS: Online survey distributed between April 19 and May 3, 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Total 6882 participants (18-94 years) across 59 countries. MEASUREMENTS: Sleep health (RU-SATED), demographics, pandemic-related factors, mood. RESULTS: More than half the sample shifted their sleep toward later bed- and wake-times, and more than a third reported increased sleep disturbances during the pandemic. Older age, being partnered, and living in a higher income country were associated with better sleep health, while a stricter level of quarantine and pandemic-related factors (being laid off from job, financial strain, or difficulties transitioning to working from home) were associated with poorer sleep health. Domestic conflict was the strongest correlate of poorer sleep health. Poorer sleep health was strongly associated with greater depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants from Latin America reported the lowest sleep health scores. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated factors have impacted sleep health on a global level. While our data are correlational, sleep health is strongly linked with mental health and could play a protective role against developing mental distress during pandemic-related isolation. Sleep health should be incorporated into public health messages aimed at helping people cope with the effects of a pandemic to maintain optimal mental and physical health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
J Clin Psychol ; 77(3): 556-570, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent social restrictions or quarantines on the mental health of the global adult population. METHOD: A sample of 6,882 individuals (Mage = 42.30; 78.8% female) from 59 countries completed an online survey asking about several pandemic-related changes in life and psychological status. RESULTS: Of these participants, 25.4% and 19.5% reported moderate-to-severe depression (DASS-21) and anxiety symptoms (GAD-7), respectively. Demographic characteristics (e.g. higher-income country), COVID-19 exposure (e.g., having had unconfirmed COVID-19 symptoms), government-imposed quarantine level, and COVID-19-based life changes (e.g., having a hard time transitioning to working from home; increase in verbal arguments or conflict with other adult in home) explained 17.9% of the variance in depression and 21.5% in anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to posing a high risk to physical health, the COVID-19 pandemic has robustly affected global mental health, so it is essential to ensure that mental health services reach individuals showing pandemic-related depression and anxiety symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
11.
Arch Rehabil Res Clin Transl ; 2(4): 100079, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a protocol for a scoping review mapping as well as thematically analyzing the literature on the effect of, and responses to, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, focused on people with disabilities with other layers of individual vulnerability or social disadvantage. METHODS: We will search scientific databases (Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, AgeLine, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC) and preprint servers (MedRxiv, SocArXiv, PsyArXiv). Google searches, snowballing, and key-informant strategies were also used, including a focus on the gray literature (eg, official reports). Peer-reviewed and preprint publications will be covered in 6 languages, and the gray literature in English. Publications will be included if they address individuals with disabilities; the COVID-19 pandemic or subsequent socioeconomic or occupational effects; and individual or social vulnerabilities, including any form of discrimination, marginalization, or social disadvantage. Two independent reviewers will perform eligibility decisions and key data extractions. Beyond mapping the literature, the results will thematically analyze any disproportionate risks people with disabilities and other forms of vulnerability experience in terms of being infected by COVID-19, having severe health consequences, and facing negative socioeconomic effects. Actions taken or recommended to reduce identified inequalities will also be synthesized. Our entire research team, with diverse backgrounds, will be involved in the synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: This review, which we plan to expedite, aims to inform policy makers, health authorities, disability advocates, and other stakeholders regarding the needs and ways to promote equity and disability-inclusive responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant socioeconomic shockwaves.

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