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1.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(10): e690-e702, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050138

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of depression among older adults in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a task-shared, collaborative care psychosocial intervention for improving recovery from depression in older adults in Brazil. METHODS: PROACTIVE was a pragmatic, two-arm, parallel-group, cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted in Guarulhos, Brazil. Primary care clinics (clusters) were stratified by educational level and randomly allocated (1:1) to either enhanced usual care alone (control group) or to enhanced usual care plus the psychosocial intervention (intervention group), which involved a 17-week psychosocial programme based on psychoeducation and behavioural activation approaches. Individuals approached for the initial screening assessment were selected randomly from a list of individuals provided by the Health Secretariat of Guarulhos. Face-to-face baseline assessments were conducted among adults aged 60 years or older registered with one of the primary care clinics and identified with clinically significant depressive symptomatology (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9] score ≥10). Community health workers delivered the programme through home sessions, supported by a dedicated tablet application. Masking of clinic staff and community health workers who delivered the intervention was not feasible; however, research assistants conducting recruitment and follow-up assessments were masked to trial allocation. The primary outcome was recovery from depression (PHQ-9 score <10) at 8-month follow-up. All primary analyses were performed by intention to treat with imputed data. Adaptations to the protocol were made due to the COVID-19 pandemic; recruitment and intervention home sessions were stopped, and follow-up assessments were conducted by telephone. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN57805470. FINDINGS: We identified 24 primary care clinics in Guarulhos that were willing to participate, of which 20 were randomly allocated to either the control group (ten [50%] clusters) or to the intervention group (ten [50%] clusters). The four remaining eligible clusters were kept as reserves. Between May 23, 2019, and Feb 21, 2020, 8146 individuals were assessed for eligibility, of whom 715 (8·8%) participants were recruited: 355 (49·7%) in the control group and 360 (50·3%) in the intervention group. 284 (80·0%) participants in the control group and 253 (70·3%) in the intervention group completed follow-up at 8 months. At 8-month follow-up, 158 (62·5%) participants in the intervention group showed recovery from depression (PHQ-9 score <10) compared with 125 (44·0%) in the control group (adjusted odds ratio 2·16 [95% CI 1·47-3·18]; p<0·0001). These findings were maintained in the complete case analysis. No adverse events related to the intervention were observed. INTERPRETATION: Although the COVID-19 pandemic altered delivery of the intervention, the low-intensity psychosocial intervention delivered mainly by non-mental health professionals was highly efficacious in improving recovery from depression in older adults in Brazil. Our results support a low-resource intervention that could be useful to reduce the treatment gap for depression among older people in other LMICs. FUNDING: São Paulo Research Foundation and Joint Global Health Trials (UK Department for International Development, Medical Research Council, and the Wellcome Trust).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychosocial Intervention , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
2.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 833263, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903177

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health problems among undergraduates are a significant public health concern. Most studies exploring mental health in this population during the pandemic have been conducted in high-income countries. Fewer studies come from Latin American countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia, and suicide risk, and explore the association with several relevant variables in personal, family, university, and SARS-CoV-2 pandemic domains. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chile in a medium-size private University. Outcome variables were explored with valid instruments: Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Independent variables from personal (e.g., sex, age, sexual orientation, history of mental health problems, substance use), family (e.g., parental educational background, family history of mental health problems, family functioning), university (e.g., course year, financial support, psychological sense of university belonging, history of failing subjects) and SARS-CoV-2 domains (e.g., history of personal and family contagion, fear of contracting SARS-CoV-2, frequency of physical activity, keeping routines and social contact). Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted for each outcome, after univariable and domain-specific multivariable models. The significant variable at each step was selected if the p-value was ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 5,037 students answered the survey-the global response rate of 63.5%. Most of the students were females (70.4%) and freshmen students (25.2%). The prevalence of mental health problems was high: depression (37.1%), anxiety (37.9%), and stress (54.6%). Insomnia was reported in 32.5% of students, and suicide risk in 20.4% of students. The associated variables at personal domain were history of mental health problems, substance use, and sexual orientation; at family domain, family functioning and family history of mental health problems; at university domain, violence victimization and sense of belonging; and in SARS-CoV-2 domain, having a daily routine and fear to contracting SARS-CoV-2 by students themselves or others. Conclusions: The prevalence of mental health problems is high among undergraduate students and some of the associated factors, such as victimization and a sense of belonging can be used in preventive interventions.

3.
PLoS Med ; 19(5): e1004000, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic factors have been consistently associated with suicide, and economic recessions are linked to rising suicide rates. However, evidence on the impact of socioeconomic interventions to reduce suicide rates is limited. This study investigates the association of the world's largest conditional cash transfer programme with suicide rates in a cohort of half of the Brazilian population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from the 100 Million Brazilian Cohort, covering a 12-year period (2004 to 2015). It comprises socioeconomic and demographic information on 114,008,317 individuals, linked to the "Bolsa Família" programme (BFP) payroll database, and nationwide death registration data. BFP was implemented by the Brazilian government in 2004. We estimated the association of BFP using inverse probability of treatment weighting, estimating the weights for BFP beneficiaries (weight = 1) and nonbeneficiaries by the inverse probability of receiving treatment (weight = E(ps)/(1-E(ps))). We used an average treatment effect on the treated (ATT) estimator and fitted Poisson models to estimate the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for suicide associated with BFP experience. At the cohort baseline, BFP beneficiaries were younger (median age 27.4 versus 35.4), had higher unemployment rates (56% versus 32%), a lower level of education, resided in rural areas, and experienced worse household conditions. There were 36,742 suicide cases among the 76,532,158 individuals aged 10 years, or older, followed for 489,500,000 person-years at risk. Suicide rates among beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries were 5.4 (95% CI = 5.32, 5.47, p < 0.001) and 10.7 (95% CI = 10.51, 10.87, p < 0.001) per 100,000 individuals, respectively. BFP beneficiaries had a lower suicide rate than nonbeneficiaries (IRR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.45, p < 0.001). This association was stronger among women (IRR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.33, 0.38, p < 0.001), and individuals aged between 25 and 59 (IRR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.40, 0.43, p < 0.001). Study limitations include a lack of control for previous mental disorders and access to means of suicide, and the possible under-registration of suicide cases due to stigma. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that BFP was associated with lower suicide rates, with similar results in all sensitivity analyses. These findings should help to inform policymakers and health authorities to better design suicide prevention strategies. Targeting social determinants using cash transfer programmes could be important in limiting suicide, which is predicted to rise with the economic recession, consequent to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Suicide/prevention & control
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316064

ABSTRACT

Background: Socio-economic factors have been consistently associated with suicide, and economic recessions are linked to rising suicide rates. This study investigates the effect of the world`s largest conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme on suicide rates in a cohort of half the Brazilian population. Methods: We used data from the 100 Million Brazilian Cohort, covering a 12-year period (2004 to 2015). It comprises socio-economic and demographic information on 114,008,317 individuals, linked to the “Bolsa Família” programme (BFP) payroll database, and nationwide death registration data. We fitted Poisson models to estimate the incidence rate ratios for suicide, associated with exposure to the BFP and Propensity Score (PS) to group BFP beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. We estimated the PS through multiple logistic regression using baseline socio-demographic and economic characteristics and year of registration, and ran Kernel matching analysis and several sensitivity tests. Results: In the main analysis, 33,281 suicide cases occurred among the 69,707,312 individuals followed for 305,229,883 person-years at risk. Suicide rates among beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries were 5.5 (95%CI=5.44, 5.61) and 11.1 (95%CI=10.41, 11.81) in the matched cohort and 5.4 (95%CI=5.32, 5.47) and 10.7 (95%CI=10.51, 10.87) per 100,000 individuals, in the original cohorts. BFP beneficiaries had a 61% lower suicide rate than non-beneficiaries (IRR=0.39, 95%CI=0.37,0.41) in the main analysis and similar results in all sensitivity analyses. This effect was higher among women (IRR=0.35, 95%IC=0.31,0.39), and younger individuals (IRR=0.40, 95%IC=0.37,0.44). Interpretation: CCT programs play an important role in poverty reduction and well-being improvement for beneficiaries. We have also demonstrated that it contributes towards reduced suicide rates. Targeting social determinants, using cash transfer programmes, could be important tools to limit suicide, predicted to rise in the aftermath of the economic recession, consequent to the Covid-19 pandemic.Funding Statement: The authors received no direct financial support for this article. During the study DBM held a research associate scholarship from Wellcome Trust (202912/Z/16/Z) and CIDACS has received support from the Department of Science and Technology, from the Brazilian Ministry of Health;National Research Council (CNPq), Brazil;Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (CHAMADA MCTI/CNPq/MS/SCTIE/Decit/Fundação Bill e Melinda Gates N o 47/2014);Health Surveillance Secretariat, Ministry of Health, Brazil;Fundação de Apoio a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPESB);Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP);Secretaria de Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado da Bahia (SECTI), and Wellcome Trust.Declaration of Interests: All authors have no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the two research ethics committees of the: (i) Federal University of Bahia (application number: 1023107) and (ii) London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (application number: 11581).

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052339, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406662

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Improving the mental health of young people is a global public health priority. In Latin America, young people living in deprived urban areas face various risk factors for mental distress. However, most either do not develop mental distress in the form of depression and anxiety, or recover within a year without treatment from mental health services. This research programme seeks to identify the personal and social resources that help young people to prevent and recover from mental distress. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cross-sectional study will compare personal and social resources used by 1020 young people (aged 15-16 and 20-24 years) with symptoms of depression and/or anxiety and 1020 without. A longitudinal cohort study will follow-up young people with mental distress after 6 months and 1 year and compare resource use in those who do and do not recover. An experience sampling method study will intensively assess activities, experiences and mental distress in subgroups over short time periods. Finally, we will develop case studies highlighting existing initiatives that effectively support young people to prevent and recover from mental distress. The analysis will assess differences between young people with and without distress at baseline using t-tests and χ2 tests. Within the groups with mental distress, multivariate logistic regression analyses using a random effects model will assess the relationship between predictor variables and recovery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approvals are received from Ethics Committee in Biomedical Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires; Faculty of Medicine-Research and Ethics Committee of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Institutional Ethics Committee of Research of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and Queen Mary Ethics of Research Committee. Dissemination will include arts-based methods and target different audiences such as national stakeholders, researchers from different disciplines and the general public. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN72241383.


Subject(s)
Longitudinal Studies , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Latin America , Prospective Studies
6.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 647456, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231404

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mental health problems among children and adolescents are frequent. Today, the world is facing a pandemic with a novel coronavirus, which is related to the higher rates of mental problems reported worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the Covid-19 related experiences, educational experiences, and family functioning on mental health and wellbeing among children and adolescents in Chile during the Pandemic and lockdown health measures. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the first wave of an ongoing longitudinal study among girls and boys of Pre-Kindergarten to 12th grade (4-18 years old) in Santiago, Chile. The sample consisted of 979 students from eight different schools. The method of data collection was online surveys administered to parents and adolescents. The dependent variables were mental health problems and wellbeing. Several independent variables were assessed (sociodemographic variables, Covid-19 related experiences, related educational experiences, and family functioning). A descriptive analysis and univariable and multivariable regression models were performed to study the association between variables. Results: Positive educational experiences, primarily academic self-concept, reduced the probability of mental health problems and increased wellbeing. Among covid-19 related variables, practicing meditation or praying reduced emotional problems, while having family or health problems increased emotional problems among adolescents. No clear association between Covid-19 related experiences variables among children was found. Conclusions: Our findings may help educational and public health authorities to plan future school preventive interventions to improve mental health and wellbeing in this population.

7.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(4): 340-346, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192378

ABSTRACT

Social protection measures can play an important part in securing livelihoods and in mitigating short-term and long-term economic, social, and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, cash transfer programmes are currently being adapted or expanded in various low-income and middle-income countries to support individuals and families during the pandemic. We argue that the current crisis offers an opportunity for these programmes to focus on susceptible young people (aged 15-24 years), including those with mental health conditions. Young people living in poverty and with mental health problems are at particular risk of experiencing adverse health, wellbeing, and employment outcomes with long-term consequences. They are also at risk of developing mental health conditions during this pandemic. To support this population, cash transfer programmes should not only address urgent needs around food security and survival but expand their focus to address longer-term mental health impacts of pandemics and economic crises. Such an approach could help support young people's future life chances and break the vicious cycle between mental illness and poverty that spirals many young people into both socioeconomic and mental health disadvantage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Mental Health , Public Policy , Adolescent , Developing Countries , Government Programs , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Poverty , Public Assistance/economics , Young Adult
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