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1.
Clin Endosc ; 55(1): 49-57, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has modified the activities of endoscopy units worldwide. Herein, we investigated the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on anesthesiologist assistance for endoscopic procedures in Lombardy, Italy. METHODS: A questionnaire concerning anesthesiologist assistance provided from October 26 to December 6, 2020, in comparison with the same period in 2019, was sent to endoscopic units in Lombardy. RESULTS: Approximately 54% (34/63) of the units responded. A reduction in the number of all endoscopies (-33.5%; 18792 in 2020 vs. 28264 in 2019) and anesthesiologist-assisted endoscopies (-15.3%; 2652 in 2020 vs. 3132 in 2019) was reported. A greater reduction in anesthesiologist assistance was observed in government community units (-29.5%) than in academic (-14%) and private community units (-4.6%). Among all units, 85% reported a reduction in anesthesiologist assistance; 65% observed a delay/cancellation of procedures; 59%, a restricted patient selection; 17%, the need to transfer some patients to other hospitals; and 32%, a related worsening of procedure quality. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic compromised the anesthesiologist assistance for endoscopic procedures in Lombardy, which worsened the procedure quality mainly in government community units. The COVID-19 "stress test" suggests a more balanced allocation of anesthesiologic resources in the future.

3.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(11-12): 1432-1441, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older age and comorbidities are the main risk factors for adverse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The impact of IBD medications is still under investigation. AIMS: To assess risk factors for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 in IBD patients and use the identified risk factors to build risk indices. METHODS: Observational cohort study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with pneumonia, hospitalisation, need for ventilatory support, and death. RESULTS: Of the 937 patients (446 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) evaluated, 128 (13.7%) had asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, 664 (70.8%) had a favourable course, and 135 (15.5%) had moderate or severe COVID-19. In UC patients, obesity, active disease and comorbidities were significantly associated with adverse outcomes. In patients with Crohn's disease (CD), age, obesity, comorbidities and an additional immune-mediated inflammatory disease were identified as risk factors. These risk factors were incorporated into two indices to identify patients with UC or CD with a higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. In multivariable analyses, no single IBD medication was associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes, but anti-TNF agents were associated with a lower risk of pneumonia in UC, and lower risks of hospitalisation and severe COVID-19 in CD. CONCLUSION: The course of COVID-19 in patients with IBD is similar to that in the general population. IBD patients with active disease and comorbidities are at greater risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. IBD medications do not pose additional risks. The risk indices may help to identify patients who should be prioritised for COVID-19 re-vaccination or for therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Aged , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
4.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(11): 3050-3055, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, concerns have been raised as to whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients under biologic therapy may be more susceptible to the disease. This study aimed to determine the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19 in a large cohort of IBD patients on biologic therapy. METHODS: This observational retrospective multicenter study collected data about COVID-19 in IBD patients on biologic therapy in Italy, between February and May 2020. The main end-points were (i) to assess both the cumulative incidence and clinical outcome of COVID-19, according to different biologic agents and (ii) to compare them with the general population and a cohort IBD patients undergoing non-biologic therapies. RESULTS: Among 1816 IBD patients, the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was 3.9 per 1000 (7/1816) with a 57% hospitalization rate and a 29% case-fatality rate. The class of biologic agents was the only risk factor of developing COVID-19 (P = 0.01). Non-gut selective agents were associated with a lower incidence of COVID-19 cases, related symptoms, and hospitalization (P < 0.05). Compared with the general population of Lombardy, an overall lower incidence of COVID-19 was observed (3.9 vs 8.5 per 1000, P = 0.03). Compared with 565 IBD patients on non-biologic therapies, a lower rate of COVID-19 symptoms was observed in our cohort (7.5% vs 18%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the general population, IBD patients on biologic therapy are not exposed to a higher risk of COVID-19. Non-gut selective agents are associated with a lower incidence of symptomatic disease, supporting the decision of maintaining the ongoing treatment.


Subject(s)
Biological Factors/administration & dosage , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Colitis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology ; 39(1):196-202, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1235491

ABSTRACT

Since January 2020, the whole world has been facing the worst epidemic for a century. SARS-CoV- 2 infection has so far caused more than one million deaths, with the only measures capable of containing the spread of the virus being social distancing, frequent hand washing, and the wearing of masks. Vaccine development was urgently needed and there are now more than 90 candidate vaccines being developed using different technologies. The European Medicines Agency has recently approved a second mRNA-based vaccine, but the introduction of vaccines has raised some doubts about patients with rheumatic disease, who are at high risk of infection because of disease activity and the therapies used to treat it. The aim of this study was to investigate how vaccines may interact with the immune system and treatment of such patients, and how to monitor the post-vaccine antibody titres and T cell responses in order to assess their efficacy and safety.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211814

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the outbreak of Sars-CoV-2 pandemic has changed medical practice and daily routine around the world. Huge efforts from pharmacological industries have led to the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In particular two mRNA vaccines, namely the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and the mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and a viral-vectored vaccine, i.e. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), have recently been approved in Europe. Clinical trials on these vaccines have been published on the general population showing a high efficacy with minor adverse events. However, specific data about the efficacy and safety of these vaccines in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are still lacking. Moreover, the limited availability of these vaccines requires prioritizing some vulnerable categories of patients compared to others. In this position paper, we propose the point of view about the management of COVID-19 vaccination from Italian experts on IMIDs and the identification of high-risk groups according to the different diseases and their chronic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune System Diseases/virology , Vaccination/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Europe , Expert Testimony , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Glomerulonephritis/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases/virology , Uveitis/complications , Uveitis/immunology , Uveitis/virology
7.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39(1): 196-202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068420

ABSTRACT

Since January 2020, the whole world has been facing the worst epidemic for a century. SARS-CoV- 2 infection has so far caused more than one million deaths, with the only measures capable of containing the spread of the virus being social distancing, frequent hand washing, and the wearing of masks. Vaccine development was urgently needed and there are now more than 90 candidate vaccines being developed using different technologies. The European Medicines Agency has recently approved a second mRNA-based vaccine, but the introduction of vaccines has raised some doubts about patients with rheumatic disease, who are at high risk of infection because of disease activity and the therapies used to treat it. The aim of this study was to investigate how vaccines may interact with the immune system and treatment of such patients, and how to monitor the post-vaccine antibody titres and T cell responses in order to assess their efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines/adverse effects
8.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(3): 263-270, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: This observational study compared the prevalence of COVID-19 symptoms, diagnosis and hospitalization in IBD patients with a control population with non-inflammatory bowel disorders. METHODS: This multicentre study, included 2733 outpatients (1397 IBD patients and 1336 controls), from eight major gastrointestinal centres in Lombardy, Italy. Patients were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire regarding demographic, historical and clinical features over the previous 6 weeks. The prevalence of COVID-19 symptoms, diagnosis and hospitalization for COVID-19 was assessed. RESULTS: 1810 patients (64%) responded to the questionnaire (941 IBD patients and 869 controls). IBD patients were significantly younger and of male sex than controls. NSAID use and smoking were more frequent in controls. IBD patients were more likely treated with vitamin-D and vaccinated for influenza. Highly probable COVID-19 on the basis of symptoms and signs was less frequent in the IBD group (3.8% vs 6.3%; OR:0.45, 95%CI:0.28-0.75). IBD patients had a lower rate of nasopharyngeal swab-PCR confirmed diagnosis (0.2% vs 1.2%; OR:0.14, 95%CI:0.03-0.67). There was no difference in hospitalization between the groups (0.1% vs 0.6%; OR:0.14, 95%CI:0.02-1.17). CONCLUSION: IBD patients do not have an increased risk of COVID-19 specific symptoms or more severe disease compared with a control group of gastroenterology patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(2): 337-342, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831030

ABSTRACT

A severe outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in China in December 2019, and spread so rapidly that more than 200,000 cases have so far been reported worldwide; on January 30, 2020, the WHO declared it the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The two previously reported coronavirus epidemics (severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS] and Middle East respiratory syndrome [MERS]) share similar pathogenetic, epidemiological and clinical features as COVID-19. As little is currently known about SARS-CoV-2, it is likely that lessons learned from these major epidemics can be applied to the new pandemic, including the use of novel immunosuppressive drugs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokines/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology
11.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 45(3): 101521, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients have an increased susceptibility to develop thrombotic complications, thus thromboprophylaxis is warranted which may increase risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Our aim was to evaluate incidence of UGIB and use of upper GI endoscopy in COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: The medical and endoscopic management of UGIB in non-ICU COVID-19 patients has been retrospectively evaluated. Glasgow Blatchford score was calculated at onset of signs of GI bleeding. Timing between onset of signs of GI bleeding and execution, if performed, of upper GI endoscopy was evaluated. Endoscopic characteristics and outcome of patients were evaluated overall or according to the execution or not of an upper GI endoscopy before and after 24h. RESULTS: Out of 4871 COVID-19 positive patients, 23 presented signs of UGIB and were included in the study (incidence 0.47%). The majority (78%) were on anticoagulant therapy or thromboprophylaxis. In 11 patients (48%) upper GI endoscopy was performed within 24h, whereas it was not performed in 5. Peptic ulcer was the most common finding (8/18). Mortality rate was 21.7% for worsening of COVID-19 infection. Mortality and rebleeding were not different between patients having upper GI endoscopy before or after 24h/not performed. Glasgow Blatchford score was similar between the two groups (13;12-16 vs 12;9-15). CONCLUSION: Upper GI bleeding complicated hospital stay in almost 0.5% of COVID-19 patients and peptic ulcer disease is the most common finding. Conservative management could be an option in patients that are at high risk of respiratory complications.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
12.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 55(7): 870-876, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630900

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 pandemic has seriously affected Italy. Radical changes occurred in the Italian NHS and thus in GI departments, as only urgent endoscopies were guaranteed. The study aimed to report how the demand for urgent endoscopy changed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and to evaluate the appropriateness of urgent referrals in the Endoscopy Unit.Material and methods: Nation-wide, cross-sectional survey study in 54 Italian GI Units. Data were collected regarding urgent endoscopies (EGD, CS, ERCP) in two different time periods: March 2019 and March 2020.Results: Thirty-five (64.8%) GI endoscopy Units responded to the survey. The entity of reduction of overall urgent EGDs and CSs performed in March 2020 versus March 2019 was statistically significant: 541 versus 974 (-80%), p < .001 for EGD and 171 versus 265 (-55%), p < .008, for CS, respectively. No statistically significant reduction of urgent ERCP performed in March 2020 versus March 2019 was found. The increase in overall diagnostic yield for urgent EGD in March 2020 versus March 2019 was 7.3% (CI [0.028-0.117], p = .001). No statistically significant difference in diagnostic yield for CS between 2019 and 2020 was found.Conclusion: The study showed a statistically significant reduction of urgent EGD and CS performed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, in March 2020, compared to March 2019. The diagnostic yield of urgent EGD performed in March 2020 was significantly higher than that of March 2019. No statistically significant difference was found in terms of diagnostic yield of urgent CS between March 2020 and March 2019.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(5): e255-e256, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-35149
15.
J Crohns Colitis ; 14(9): 1334-1336, 2020 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-15707

ABSTRACT

Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], the main inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD] in humans, are chronic, immune-inflammatory diseases, the pathogenesis of which suggests a complex interaction between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. These disabling conditions affect millions of individuals and, together with the drugs used to treat them, can put patients at risk of developing complications and other conditions. This is particularly relevant today, as coronavirus disease [Covid-19] has rapidly spread from China to countries where IBD are more prevalent, and there is convincing evidence that Covid-19-mediated morbidity and mortality are higher in subjects with comorbidities. The primary objectives of this Viewpoint are to provide a focused overview of the factors and mechanisms by which the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] infects cells and to illustrate the link between such determinants and intestinal inflammation. We also provide clues about the reasons why the overall IBD population might have no increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlight the potential of cytokine blockers, used to treat IBD patients, to prevent Covid-driven pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Coronavirus Infections , Crohn Disease , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Crohn Disease/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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