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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625052

ABSTRACT

To raise awareness about preventive measures in COVID-19 pandemic, even though fully vaccinated. Although recent trials showed high efficacy of vaccines in preventing symptomatic infections, there are some individuals experiencing symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this case report, a fully vaccinated young dental practitioner experienced symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection 55 days postvaccination with BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccine with evident ageusia. Diagnostic swabs were performed and used for viral genome sequencing. The patient fully recovered 15 days after diagnosis. Loss of smell and taste, together with nasal congestion were the main reported symptoms. The use of personal protective equipment prevented spread of infection in patients and co-workers. With the increase of people being fully vaccinated, it is still necessary to follow infection preventive protocols by correctly applying personal protective equipment. Although high efficacy has been proved, some individuals may still be vulnerable to symptomatic infection and new guidelines and markers should be adopted and investigated to find out patients for whom vaccination may not determine full immunization.

3.
Applied Sciences ; 11(8):3604, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1249665

ABSTRACT

Autonomous driving is a technological innovation that involves the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive area, representing the future of transport and whose applications will influence the concept of driving and many other features of modern society. Indeed, the introduction of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) on the market, along with the development of related technologies, will have a potential impact not only on the automotive industry but also on urban transport systems. New mobility-related businesses will emerge, whereas existing ones will have to adapt to changes. There are various aspects that affect urban transport systems: in this work, we highlight how road markings, intersections, and pavement design upgradings have a key role for AVs operation. This work aims to describe how contemporary society will be influenced by Autonomous Vehicles’ spread in regard to urban transport systems. A comprehensive analysis of the expected developments within urban transport systems is hereby presented, and some crucial issues concerning benefits and drawbacks are also discussed. From our studies, it emerges that the detection performed by vehicles is mainly affected by road markings characteristics, especially at intersections. Indeed, the need for a new cross-sections type arise, since vehicles wandering phenomena will be reduced due to AVs position-keeping systems.

4.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1739-1742, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206811

ABSTRACT

Here we present results from a survey on anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence in healthy blood donors from a low incidence coronavirus disease 2019 area (Apulia region, South Eastern Italy). Among 904 subjects tested, only in nine cases (0.99%) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were demonstrated. All the nine seropositive patients were negative for the research of viral RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal swabs. These data, along with those recently reported from other countries, clearly show that we are very far from herd immunity and that the containment measures are at the moment the only realistic instrument we have to slow the spread of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Herd/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/immunology , Young Adult
5.
Acta Haematol ; 144(5): 580-584, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194384

ABSTRACT

Recently, a significant cluster of pneumonia caused by a novel betacoronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) was described initially in China and then spread throughout the world. Like other coronaviridae, the viral transmission occurs mainly through droplets. In addition, the virus has been detected in different clinical specimens, suggesting a potential transmission by other routes, including blood transfusion. However, the potential risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via blood products is still unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors from South-Eastern Italy. Moreover, in the seropositive donors, we searched for the presence of the virus in nasopharyngeal swabs and in plasma samples. Overall, 1,797 blood donors from the Apulia region were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, using a commercially available assay. Only 18/1,797 donors (1.0%) tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; in none of them SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs and in plasma samples. Our results indicate that most of the blood donors in Apulia remained uninfected during this wave of the pandemic; further, none had detectable virus both in nasopharyngeal swabs and in blood samples. The risk to carry and transmit the virus by healthy and asymptomatic blood donors is probably very low.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Young Adult
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 696-700, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has heavily impacted Italy. The government's restriction measures have attenuated the burden on hospitals. The association of high viral replication with disease severity suggests the potential for lower viral load in milder clinical presentations. METHODS: The reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) profile of 944 consecutive, non-replicate, positive retropharyngeal swabs was collected from 3 March to 8 June 2020 to investigate the temporal profile of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the region of Capitanata, Apulia. Cycle threshold (Ct) values of 3 targets (N [nucleocapsid protein], E [envelope protein] and RdRP [RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase]) were analysed. RESULTS: The median Ct values of the 3 targets increased considerably over the study period, showing a progressive and constant weekly change. The negative detection rate of E and RdRP increased over time. These data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 viral load progressively decreased along the outbreak course. During the first epidemic peak (March and April) the viral load among patients >80-years was significantly higher than for younger subjects. However, in May this age-dependent difference disappeared, underlying viral load reduction in the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: An attenuation of viral transmission or pathogenicity during the epidemic course is suggested, likely due to restriction measures, although viral factors might also be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055068

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused an excess in morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Containment strategies rely firstly on rapid and sensitive laboratory diagnosis, with molecular detection of the viral genome in respiratory samples being the gold standard. The reliability of diagnostic protocols could be affected by SARS-CoV-2 genetic variability. In fact, mutations occurring during SARS-CoV-2 genomic evolution can involve the regions targeted by the diagnostic probes. Following a review of the literature and an in silico analysis of the most recently described virus variants (including the UK B 1.1.7 and the South Africa 501Y.V2 variants), we conclude that the described genetic variability should have minimal or no effect on the sensitivity of existing diagnostic protocols for SARS-CoV-2 genome detection. However, given the continuous emergence of new variants, the situation should be monitored in the future, and protocols including multiple targets should be preferred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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