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J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1949-1957, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783444


BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult patients with IEI. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study, 505 patients with IEI (common variable immunodeficiency [CVID], isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received 2 doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first vaccination, and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to those in healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, such as CVID and combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to those in controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of patients with CVID. The presence of noninfectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with CVID were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency and CVID. Lowest response was detected in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and in patients with CVID with noninfectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision making for additional vaccinations.

2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/blood , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/blood , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/blood , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 61(2): 231-247, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460524


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the randomized controlled trial REMAP-CAP, it was shown that next to dexamethasone, the interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab improves outcome, including survival in intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID)-19 patients. Therefore tocilizumab has been added to many COVID-19 treatment guidelines. Because obesity is a risk factor for the development of severe COVID-19, concerns have been raised about overtreatment, as well as undertreatment, through weight-based dosing of tocilizumab. The currently applied dose of 8 mg/kg is based on the use of this drug for other indications, however it has not formally been investigated for COVID-19. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tocilizumab were investigated in ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This was an open-label, single-centre, observational population pharmacokinetic and descriptive pharmacodynamic evaluation study. Enrolled patients, with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to the ICU for mechanical ventilation or high flow nasal canula oxygen support. All patients were 18 years of age or older and received intravenous tocilizumab 8 mg/kg (maximum 800 mg) within 24 h after admission to the ICU and received dexamethasone 6 mg daily as concomitant therapy. For evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tocilizumab, all time points from day 0 to 20 days after dose administration were eligible for collection. A nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed to characterize the population pharmacokinetic parameters of tocilizumab in ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients. Covariate analysis was performed to identify potential covariates for dose individualization. For the development of alternative dosing schedules, Monte Carlo simulations using the final model were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 29 patients were enrolled between 15 December 2020 and 15 March 2021. A total of 139 tocilizumab plasma samples were obtained covering the pharmacokinetic curve of day 0 to day 20 after tocilizumab initiation. A population pharmacokinetic model with parallel linear and nonlinear clearance (CL) was developed and validated. Average CL was estimated to be 0.725 L/day, average volume of distribution (Vd) was 4.34 L, maximum elimination rate (Vmax) was 4.19 µg/day, and concentration at which the elimination pathway is half saturated (Km) was 0.22 µg/mL. Interindividual variability was identified for CL (18.9%) and Vd (21%). Average area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity of the first dose (AUCinf 1st DOSE) was 938 [±190] µg/mL*days. All patients had tocilizumab exposure above 1 µg/mL for at least 15 days. Bodyweight-based dosing increases variability in exposure compared with fixed dosing. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence to support a fixed dose of tocilizumab 600 mg in COVID-19 patients. Fixed dosing is a safe, logistically attractive, and drug expenses saving alternative compared with the current 8 mg/kg recommendation.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
Infect Dis Rep ; 13(4): 855-864, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438581


It is not exactly clear yet which type of immune response prevails to accomplish viral clearance in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Studying a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and hypogammaglobulinemia who suffered from COVID-19 provided insight in the immunological responses after treatment with COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). Treatment consisted of oxygen, repeated glucocorticosteroids and multiple dosages of CCP guided by antibody levels. Retrospectively performed humoral and cellular immunity analysis made clear that not every serological test for COVID-19 is appropriate for follow-up of sufficient neutralizing antibodies after CCP. In retrospect, we think that CCP merely bought time for this patient to develop an adequate cellular immune response which led to viral clearance and ultimately clinical recovery.