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1.
J Affect Disord Rep ; 6: 100271, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the mental health of healthcare and social care workers, and its potential effect on suicidal thoughts and behaviour is of particular concern. METHODS: This systematic review identified and appraised the published literature that has reported on the impact of COVID-19 on suicidal thoughts and behaviour and self-harm amongst healthcare and social care workers worldwide up to May 31, 2021. RESULTS: Out of 37 potentially relevant papers identified, ten met our eligibility criteria. Our review has highlighted that the impact of COVID-19 has varied as a function of setting, working relationships, occupational roles, and psychiatric comorbidities. LIMITATIONS: There have been no completed cohort studies comparing pre- and post-pandemic suicidal thoughts and behaviours. It is possible some papers may have been missed in the search. CONCLUSIONS: The current quality of evidence pertaining to suicidal behaviour in healthcare workers is poor, and evidence is entirely absent for those working in social care. The clinical relevance of this work is to bring attention to what evidence exists, and to encourage, in practice, proactive approaches to interventions for improving healthcare and social care worker mental health.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785637

ABSTRACT

Individuals bereaved by suicide represent an important group in terms of postvention. While peer support groups are often accessed by those bereaved, few studies have examined their impact in terms of physical and mental health wellbeing. The aim of this study was to examine psychosocial outcomes of individuals attending suicide bereavement peer support groups in Ireland. Between August 2020 and June 2021, all members were invited to complete a survey, with new members also surveyed at three- and six-month follow-up, to examine changes in wellbeing, depressive symptoms and grief reactions. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and mixed linear regression models. The 75 participants were mostly female, with lower levels of overall wellbeing and a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation than the general population. Participants also reported high levels of social adjustment difficulties and grief reactions, which were more pronounced for those more recently bereaved. At follow-up (n = 28), a significant improvement in wellbeing and a reduction in grief reactions were found, adjusting for time since bereavement. Participants identified the groups as creating a safe space and providing a sense of belonging and hope. Notwithstanding the small number of participants at follow-up, these findings underline the enduring mental health challenges for those bereaved by suicide and provide further evidence for the role of peer support in postvention.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , Suicide , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Grief , Humans , Male , Self-Help Groups , Suicide/psychology
3.
Pirkis, Jane, Gunnell, David, Shin, Sangsoo, DelPozo-Banos, Marcos, Arya, Vikas, Analuisa Aguilar, Pablo, Appleby, Louis, Arafat, S. M. Yasir, Arensman, Ella, Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis, Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh, Bantjes, Jason, Baran, Anna, Behera, Chittaranjan, Bertolote, Jose, Borges, Guilherme, Bray, Michael, Brečić, Petrana, Caine, Eric D.; Calati, Raffaella, Carli, Vladimir, Castelpietra, Giulio, Chan, Lai Fong, Chang, Shu-Sen, Colchester, David, Coss-Guzmán, Maria, Crompton, David, Curkovic, Marko, Dandona, Rakhi, De Jaegere, Eva, De Leo, Diego, Deisenhammer, Eberhard, Dwyer, Jeremy, Erlangsen, Annette, Faust, Jeremy, Fornaro, Michele, Fortune, Sarah, Garrett, Andrew, Gentile, Guendalina, Gerstner, Rebekka, Gilissen, Renske, Gould, Madelyn, Gupta, Sudhir Kumar, Hawton, Keith, Holz, Franziska, Kamenshchikov, Iurii, Kapur, Navneet, Kasal, Alexandr, Khan, Murad, Kirtley, Olivia, Knipe, Duleeka, Kolves, Kairi, Kölzer, Sarah, Krivda, Hryhorii, Leske, Stuart, Madeddu, Fabio, Marshall, Andrew, Memon, Anjum, Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor, Nestadt, Paul, Neznanov, Nikolay, Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas, Nielsen, Emma, Nordentoft, Merete, Oberlerchner, Herwig, O'Connor, Rory, Papsdorf, Rainer, Partonen, Timo, Michael, Phillips, Platt, Steve, Portzky, Gwendolyn, Psota, Georg, Qin, Ping, Radeloff, Daniel, Reif, Andreas, Reif-Leonhard, Christine, Rezaeian, Mohsen, Román-Vázquez, Nayda, Roskar, Saska, Rozanov, Vsevolod, Sara, Grant, Scavacini, Karen, Schneider, Barbara, Semenova, Natalia, Sinyor, Mark, Tambuzzi, Stefano, Townsend, Ellen, Ueda, Michiko, Wasserman, Danuta, Webb, Roger T.; Winkler, Petr, Yip, Paul S. F.; Zalsman, Gil, Zoja, Riccardo, John, Ann, Spittal, Matthew J..
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-331684

ABSTRACT

Background When the COVID-19 pandemic began there were concerns that suicides might rise, but predicted increases were not generally observed in the pandemic’s early months. However, the picture may be changing and patterns may vary across demographic groups. We aimed to provide an up-to-date, granular picture of the impact of COVID-19 on suicides globally.Methods We identified suicide data from official public-sector sources for countries/areas-within-countries. We used interrupted time series (ITS) analyses to model the association between the pandemic’s emergence and total suicides and suicides by sex-, age- and sex-by-age in each country/area-within-country. We compared the observed number of suicides to the expected number in the pandemic’s first nine and first 10-15 months and used meta-regression to explore sources of variation.Findings We sourced data from 33 countries (24 high-income, six upper-middle-income, three lower-middle-income). There was no evidence of greater-than-expected numbers of suicides in the majority of countries/areas-within-countries in any analysis;more commonly, there was evidence of lower-than-expected numbers. Certain sex, age and sex-by-age groups stood out as potentially concerning, but these were not consistent across countries/areas-within-countries. In the meta-regression, different patterns were not explained by countries’ COVID-19 mortality rate, stringency of public health response, level of economic support, or presence of a national suicide prevention strategy. They were also not explained by countries’ income level, although the meta-regression only included data from high-income and upper-middle-income countries, and there were suggestions from the ITS analyses that lower-middle-income countries fared less well.Interpretation Although there are some countries/areas-within-countries where overall suicide numbers and numbers for certain sex- and age-based groups are greater-than-expected, these are in the minority. Any upward movement in suicide numbers in any place or group is concerning, and we need to remain alert to and respond to changes as the pandemic and its mental health and economic consequences continue.

4.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examines compliance with local travel restrictions and assesses early uptake of mask wearing, during the initial phase of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Ireland, to inform the ongoing outbreak response. METHODS: A series of four nationally representative telephone surveys were developed. Information was collected at a household level and from primary respondents. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the association between sociodemographic characteristics and compliance with the local travel restriction and with mask use in primary respondents. RESULTS: Household compliance with local travel restrictions was similar by region, household size and social position. 73.4% of all household members complied, with high levels maintained over time. Higher proportions reported travelling for non-permitted reasons with time. Older age, female gender and attending higher education were independently associated with compliance to local travel restrictions. Among primary respondents, no factors were independently associated with mask use. CONCLUSION: High compliance with local travel restrictions during the early stages of the pandemic demonstrates the engagement of the population with public health guidance. Although high compliance with local travel restrictions was generally maintained over time, non-permitted activities increased. Early adoption of mask use before required by national policy or legislation provides further evidence of the responsiveness of the population.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322943

ABSTRACT

Introduction : Covid-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020. Since then, governments have implemented unprecedented public health measures to contain the virus. This study will provide evidence to inform responses to the pandemic by: i) estimating population prevalence and trends of self-reported symptoms of Covid-19 and the proportions of symptomatic individuals and household contacts testing positive for Covid-19;ii) describing acceptance and compliance with physical-distancing measures, explore effects of public health measures on physical, mental and social wellbeing;iii) developing a mathematical network model to inform decisions on the optimal levels of physical distancing measures. Methods : Two cross-sectional nationally-representative telephone surveys will be conducted in Ireland using random digit-dialling, with response rates estimates based on proportion of non-operational and non-answering numbers. The first survey with four waves in May and June will address adherence to social distancing measures and whether the respondent or other household members are or have been unwell during the preceding two weeks with one or more symptoms of Covid-19. The second survey with three waves in June, July and September will address knowledge, attitudes, and compliance towards physical-distancing measures and physical, mental and social wellbeing. The mathematical network model will be developed for all-Ireland (on various levels of spatial granularity including the scale of counties and electoral divisions) based on outputs from both cross-sectional surveys and relevant publicly available data to inform decisions on optimal levels and duration of physical distancing measures. Discussion : This study will contribute to our understanding of the impact and sustainability of public health measures of the Covid-19 pandemic. Findings will have long-lasting benefits, informing decision-making on the best levels, and duration of physical-distancing measures, balancing a range of factors including capacity of the health service with the effects on individuals’ wellbeing and economic disruption. Findings will be shared with key policy-makers.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313480

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused widespread morbidity and mortality as well as disruption to people’s lives and livelihoods around the world;this has occurred as a result of both infection with the virus itself and the health protection measures taken to curb its spread. There are concerns that rates of suicide, suicidal behaviours and self-harm may rise during and in the aftermath of the pandemic. Given the likely rapidly expanding research evidence base on the pandemic’s impact on rates of suicide, suicidal behaviours and self-harm and emerging evidence about how best to mitigate such effects, it is important that the best available knowledge is made readily available to policymakers, public health specialists and clinicians as soon as is possible. To facilitate this, we plan to undertake a living systematic review focusing on suicide prevention in relation to COVID-19. Method: Regular automated searches will feed into a web-based screening system which will also host the data extraction form for included articles. Our eligibility criteria are wide and include aspects of incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour, effects of exposures and effects of interventions in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, with minimal restrictions on the types of study design to be included. The outcomes assessed will be death by suicide;self-harm or attempted suicide (including hospital attendance and/or admission for these reasons);and suicidal thoughts/ideation. There will be no restriction on study type, except for single case reports. There will be no restriction on language of publication. The review will be updated at three-monthly intervals if a sufficient volume of new evidence justifies doing so. Conclusions: Our living review will provide a regular synthesis of the most up-to-date research evidence to guide public health and clinical policy to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on suicide. Protocol registration: PROSPERO CRD42020183326 01/05/2020

7.
ProQuest Central;
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-328222

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused considerable morbidity, mortality and disruption to people’s lives around the world. There are concerns that rates of suicide and suicidal behaviour may rise during and in its aftermath. Our living systematic review synthesises findings from emerging literature on incidence and prevalence of suicidal behaviour as well as suicide prevention efforts in relation to COVID-19, with this iteration synthesising relevant evidence up to 19 th October 2020. Method:  Automated daily searches feed into a web-based database with screening and data extraction functionalities. Eligibility criteria include incidence/prevalence of suicidal behaviour, exposure-outcome relationships and effects of interventions in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Outcomes of interest are suicide, self-harm or attempted suicide and suicidal thoughts. No restrictions are placed on language or study type, except for single-person case reports. We exclude one-off cross-sectional studies without either pre-pandemic measures or comparisons of COVID-19 positive vs. unaffected individuals. Results: Searches identified 6,226 articles. Seventy-eight articles met our inclusion criteria. We identified a further 64 relevant cross-sectional studies that did not meet our revised inclusion criteria. Thirty-four articles were not peer-reviewed (e.g. research letters, pre-prints). All articles were based on observational studies. There was no consistent evidence of a rise in suicide but many studies noted adverse economic effects were evolving. There was evidence of a rise in community distress, fall in hospital presentation for suicidal behaviour and early evidence of an increased frequency of suicidal thoughts in those who had become infected with COVID-19. Conclusions:  Research evidence of the impact of COVID-19 on suicidal behaviour is accumulating rapidly. This living review provides a regular synthesis of the most up-to-date research evidence to guide public health and clinical policy to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on suicide risk as the longer term impacts of the pandemic on suicide risk are researched.

8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327188

ABSTRACT

Background Evidence on the impacts of the pandemic on healthcare presentations for self-harm has accumulated rapidly. However, existing reviews do not include studies published beyond 2020. Aims To systematically review evidence on health services utilisation for self-harm during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A comprehensive search of multiple databases (WHO COVID-19 database;Medline;medRxiv;Scopus;PsyRxiv;SocArXiv;bioRxiv;COVID-19 Open Research Dataset, PubMed) was conducted. Studies reporting presentation frequencies for self-harm published from 1 st Jan. 2020 to 7 th Sept. 2021 were included. Study quality was assessed using a critical appraisal tool. Results Fifty-one studies were included. 59% (30/51) were rated as ‘low’ quality, 29% (15/51) as ‘moderate’ and 12% (6/51) as ‘high-moderate’. Most evidence (84%, 43/51 studies) was from high-income countries. 47% (24/51) of studies reported reductions in presentation frequency, including all 6 rated as high-moderate quality, which reported reductions of 17- 56%. Settings treating higher lethality self-harm were overrepresented among studies reporting increased demand. Two of the 3 higher quality studies including study observation months from 2021 reported reductions in service utilisation. Evidence from 2021 suggested increased use of health services following self-harm among adolescents, particularly girls. Conclusions Sustained reductions in service utilisation were seen into the first half of 2021. However, evidence from low- and middle-income countries is lacking. The increased use of health services among adolescents, particularly girls, into 2021 is of concern. Our findings may reflect changes in thresholds for help seeking, use of alternative sources of support and variable effects of the pandemic across different groups.

9.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(7): 579-588, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound mental health consequences for many people. Concerns have been expressed that, at their most extreme, these consequences could manifest as increased suicide rates. We aimed to assess the early effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates around the world. METHODS: We sourced real-time suicide data from countries or areas within countries through a systematic internet search and recourse to our networks and the published literature. Between Sept 1 and Nov 1, 2020, we searched the official websites of these countries' ministries of health, police agencies, and government-run statistics agencies or equivalents, using the translated search terms "suicide" and "cause of death", before broadening the search in an attempt to identify data through other public sources. Data were included from a given country or area if they came from an official government source and were available at a monthly level from at least Jan 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020. Our internet searches were restricted to countries with more than 3 million residents for pragmatic reasons, but we relaxed this rule for countries identified through the literature and our networks. Areas within countries could also be included with populations of less than 3 million. We used an interrupted time-series analysis to model the trend in monthly suicides before COVID-19 (from at least Jan 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020) in each country or area within a country, comparing the expected number of suicides derived from the model with the observed number of suicides in the early months of the pandemic (from April 1 to July 31, 2020, in the primary analysis). FINDINGS: We sourced data from 21 countries (16 high-income and five upper-middle-income countries), including whole-country data in ten countries and data for various areas in 11 countries). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs based on the observed versus expected numbers of suicides showed no evidence of a significant increase in risk of suicide since the pandemic began in any country or area. There was statistical evidence of a decrease in suicide compared with the expected number in 12 countries or areas: New South Wales, Australia (RR 0·81 [95% CI 0·72-0·91]); Alberta, Canada (0·80 [0·68-0·93]); British Columbia, Canada (0·76 [0·66-0·87]); Chile (0·85 [0·78-0·94]); Leipzig, Germany (0·49 [0·32-0·74]); Japan (0·94 [0·91-0·96]); New Zealand (0·79 [0·68-0·91]); South Korea (0·94 [0·92-0·97]); California, USA (0·90 [0·85-0·95]); Illinois (Cook County), USA (0·79 [0·67-0·93]); Texas (four counties), USA (0·82 [0·68-0·98]); and Ecuador (0·74 [0·67-0·82]). INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to examine suicides occurring in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in multiple countries. In high-income and upper-middle-income countries, suicide numbers have remained largely unchanged or declined in the early months of the pandemic compared with the expected levels based on the pre-pandemic period. We need to remain vigilant and be poised to respond if the situation changes as the longer-term mental health and economic effects of the pandemic unfold. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Global Health , Models, Statistical , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Humans
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297037

ABSTRACT

Background : We assessed the mental health of individuals in the general population, during an initial period of easing of COVID-19 restrictions in the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Methods: Data were collected through a nationally representative cross-sectional telephone survey, during the first period of easing of restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic between May and July 2020. Mental health was examined using the Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety Depression Scale. Poisson regression analyses were conducted to estimate risk ratios with robust variance estimation of the association between selected demographic factors and the risk of having depression and anxiety symptoms. Results : Of the 1,983 participants, 27.7% (n = 549;95% CI: 0.26 - 0.30) reported depression and anxiety symptoms, while 74 (3.8%;95% CI: 0.03 - 0.05) disclosed self-harm and/or suicidal thoughts. Females (RR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.37 - 1.87, p < 0.0005), employed individuals who experienced a change in work status (RR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.24 - 1.82, p < 0.0005), participants cocooning due to a health condition (RR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.08 - 1.66, p< 0.01), participants who were self-isolating (RR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.51, p=0.025) and moderate-heavy drinkers (RR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.47, p<0.01) were at increased risk of depression and anxiety. Young people aged 18-29 years and those in the two lowest income categories were most likely to report self-harm and/or suicidal thoughts. Conclusion : As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, with further waves and associated restrictions, the impact on mental health in the population as a whole and in specific subgroups must be considered. Study protocol registration : doi.org/10.12688/hrbopenres.13103.2

11.
J Affect Disord Rep ; 6: 100271, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the mental health of healthcare and social care workers, and its potential effect on suicidal thoughts and behaviour is of particular concern. METHODS: This systematic review identified and appraised the published literature that has reported on the impact of COVID-19 on suicidal thoughts and behaviour and self-harm amongst healthcare and social care workers worldwide up to May 31, 2021. RESULTS: Out of 37 potentially relevant papers identified, ten met our eligibility criteria. Our review has highlighted that the impact of COVID-19 has varied as a function of setting, working relationships, occupational roles, and psychiatric comorbidities. LIMITATIONS: There have been no completed cohort studies comparing pre- and post-pandemic suicidal thoughts and behaviours. It is possible some papers may have been missed in the search. CONCLUSIONS: The current quality of evidence pertaining to suicidal behaviour in healthcare workers is poor, and evidence is entirely absent for those working in social care. The clinical relevance of this work is to bring attention to what evidence exists, and to encourage, in practice, proactive approaches to interventions for improving healthcare and social care worker mental health.

12.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(7): 579-588, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound mental health consequences for many people. Concerns have been expressed that, at their most extreme, these consequences could manifest as increased suicide rates. We aimed to assess the early effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates around the world. METHODS: We sourced real-time suicide data from countries or areas within countries through a systematic internet search and recourse to our networks and the published literature. Between Sept 1 and Nov 1, 2020, we searched the official websites of these countries' ministries of health, police agencies, and government-run statistics agencies or equivalents, using the translated search terms "suicide" and "cause of death", before broadening the search in an attempt to identify data through other public sources. Data were included from a given country or area if they came from an official government source and were available at a monthly level from at least Jan 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020. Our internet searches were restricted to countries with more than 3 million residents for pragmatic reasons, but we relaxed this rule for countries identified through the literature and our networks. Areas within countries could also be included with populations of less than 3 million. We used an interrupted time-series analysis to model the trend in monthly suicides before COVID-19 (from at least Jan 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020) in each country or area within a country, comparing the expected number of suicides derived from the model with the observed number of suicides in the early months of the pandemic (from April 1 to July 31, 2020, in the primary analysis). FINDINGS: We sourced data from 21 countries (16 high-income and five upper-middle-income countries), including whole-country data in ten countries and data for various areas in 11 countries). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs based on the observed versus expected numbers of suicides showed no evidence of a significant increase in risk of suicide since the pandemic began in any country or area. There was statistical evidence of a decrease in suicide compared with the expected number in 12 countries or areas: New South Wales, Australia (RR 0·81 [95% CI 0·72-0·91]); Alberta, Canada (0·80 [0·68-0·93]); British Columbia, Canada (0·76 [0·66-0·87]); Chile (0·85 [0·78-0·94]); Leipzig, Germany (0·49 [0·32-0·74]); Japan (0·94 [0·91-0·96]); New Zealand (0·79 [0·68-0·91]); South Korea (0·94 [0·92-0·97]); California, USA (0·90 [0·85-0·95]); Illinois (Cook County), USA (0·79 [0·67-0·93]); Texas (four counties), USA (0·82 [0·68-0·98]); and Ecuador (0·74 [0·67-0·82]). INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to examine suicides occurring in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in multiple countries. In high-income and upper-middle-income countries, suicide numbers have remained largely unchanged or declined in the early months of the pandemic compared with the expected levels based on the pre-pandemic period. We need to remain vigilant and be poised to respond if the situation changes as the longer-term mental health and economic effects of the pandemic unfold. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Global Health , Models, Statistical , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Humans
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that healthcare workers (HCWs) experience significant psychological distress during an epidemic or pandemic. Considering the increase in emerging infectious diseases and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is timely to review and synthesize the available evidence on the psychological impact of disease outbreaks on HCWs. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to examine the impact of epidemics and pandemics on the mental health of HCWs. METHOD: PubMed, PsycInfo, and PsycArticles databases were systematically searched from inception to June-end 2020 for studies reporting the impact of a pandemic/epidemic on the mental health of HCWs. RESULTS: Seventy-six studies were included in this review. Of these, 34 (45%) focused on SARS, 28 (37%) on COVID-19, seven (9%) on MERS, four (5%) on Ebola, two (3%) on H1N1, and one (1%) on H7N9. Most studies were cross-sectional (93%) and were conducted in a hospital setting (95%). Common mental health symptoms identified by this review were acute stress disorder, depression, anxiety, insomnia, burnout, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The associated risk factors were working in high-risk environments (frontline), being female, being a nurse, lack of adequate personal protective equipment, longer shifts, lack of knowledge of the virus, inadequate training, less years of experience in healthcare, lack of social support, and a history of quarantine. CONCLUSION: HCWs working in the frontline during epidemics and pandemics experience a wide range of mental health symptoms. It is imperative that adequate psychological support be provided to HCWs during and after these extraordinary distressful events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
The Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(1):e1, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1104376

ABSTRACT

Reports an error in "Real-time suicide mortality data from police reports in Queensland, Australia, during the COVID-19 pandemic: An interrupted time-series analysis" by Stuart Leske, Kairi Kolves, David Crompton, Ella Arensman and Diego de Leo (The Lancet Psychiatry, 2021[Jan], Vol 8[1], 58-63). In the original article, there were some errors in the Summary. The updated Summary is provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2021-00076-024). Background: Deaths by suicide can increase during infectious disease outbreaks. This study analysed suspected suicide rates in 2020 relative to 2015-19 to assess any early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Queensland, Australia. Methods: We analysed data from the interim Queensland Suicide Register (iQSR), a state-wide real-time suicide surveillance system, using an interrupted time-series design. The data source for the iQSR is the Form 1 police report of a death to a coroner. Two QSR staff independently classed the probability of a death by suicide as possible, probable, or beyond reasonable doubt. The analysis included the probable or beyond reasonable doubt categories as suspected suicides. The primary outcome was the monthly suspected suicide rate. We applied Poisson and negative binomial regressions to assess whether Queensland's Public Health Emergency Declaration on Jan 29, 2020, affected suspected suicides from Feb 1 to Aug 31, 2020. Secondary outcomes included absolute or relative changes in police-reported motives of recent unemployment, financial problems, domestic violence, and relationship breakdown. Findings: 3793 suspected suicides were recorded with an unadjusted monthly rate of 14.85 deaths per 100 000 people (from Jan 1, 2015, to Jan 31, 2020) before the declaration, and 443 suspected suicides were recorded with an unadjusted monthly rate of 14.07 deaths per 100 000 people (Feb 1, 2020, onwards) after the declaration. An interrupted time-series Poisson regression model unadjusted (rate ratio [RR] 0.94, 95% CI 0.82-1.06) and adjusted for overdispersion, seasonality, and pre-exposure trends (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83-1.25) indicated no evidence of a change in suspected suicide rates. We found no absolute or relative increases in the motives for suspected suicides, including recent unemployment, financial problems, relationship breakdown, or domestic violence from February to August, 2020, compared with the pre-exposure period. Interpretation: There does not yet appear to be an overall change in the suspected suicide rate in the 7 months since Queensland declared a public health emergency. Despite this, COVID-19 has contributed to some suspected suicides in Queensland. Ongoing community spread and increasing death rates of COVID-19, and its impact on national economies and mental health, reinforces the need for governments to maintain the monitoring and reporting of suicide mortality in real time. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

15.
The Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(1):58-63, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1104373

ABSTRACT

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 8(1) of The Lancet Psychiatry (see record 2021-00076-029). In the original article, there were some errors in the summary. The updated summary is provided in the erratum.] Background: Deaths by suicide can increase during infectious disease outbreaks. This study analysed suspected suicide rates in 2020 relative to 2015-19 to assess any early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Queensland, Australia. Methods: We analysed data from the interim Queensland Suicide Register (iQSR), a state-wide real-time suicide surveillance system, using an interrupted time-series design. The data source for the iQSR is the Form 1 police report of a death to a coroner. Two QSR staff independently classed the probability of a death by suicide as possible, probable, or beyond reasonable doubt. The analysis included the probable or beyond reasonable doubt categories as suspected suicides. The primary outcome was the monthly suspected suicide rate. We applied Poisson and negative binomial regressions to assess whether Queensland's Public Health Emergency Declaration on Jan 29, 2020, affected suspected suicides from Feb 1 to Aug 31, 2020. Secondary outcomes included absolute or relative changes in police-reported motives of recent unemployment, financial problems, domestic violence, and relationship breakdown. Findings: 3793 suspected suicides were recorded with an unadjusted monthly rate of 14.85 deaths per 100 000 people (from Jan 1, 2015, to Jan 31, 2020) before the declaration, and 443 suspected suicides were recorded with an unadjusted monthly rate of 14.07 deaths per 100 000 people (Feb 1, 2020, onwards) after the declaration. An interrupted time-series Poisson regression model unadjusted (rate ratio [RR] 0.94, 95% CI 0.82-1.06) and adjusted for overdispersion, seasonality, and pre-exposure trends (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83-1.25) indicated no evidence of a change in suspected suicide rates. We found no absolute or relative increases in the motives for suspected suicides, including recent unemployment, financial problems, relationship breakdown, or domestic violence from February to August, 2020, compared with the pre-exposure period. Interpretation: There does not yet appear to be an overall change in the suspected suicide rate in the 7 months since Queensland declared a public health emergency. Despite this, COVID-19 has contributed to some suspected suicides in Queensland. Ongoing community spread and increasing death rates of COVID-19, and its impact on national economies and mental health, reinforces the need for governments to maintain the monitoring and reporting of suicide mortality in real time. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

16.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(1): 58-63, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deaths by suicide can increase during infectious disease outbreaks. This study analysed suspected suicide rates in 2020 relative to 2015-19 to assess any early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: We analysed data from the interim Queensland Suicide Register (iQSR), a state-wide real-time suicide surveillance system, using an interrupted time-series design. The data source for the iQSR is the Form 1 police report of a death to a coroner. Two QSR staff independently classed the probability of a death by suicide as possible, probable, or beyond reasonable doubt. The analysis included the probable or beyond reasonable doubt categories as suspected suicides. The primary outcome was the monthly suspected suicide rate. We applied Poisson and negative binomial regressions to assess whether Queensland's Public Health Emergency Declaration on Jan 29, 2020, affected suspected suicides from Feb 1 to Aug 31, 2020. Secondary outcomes included absolute or relative changes in police-reported motives of recent unemployment, financial problems, domestic violence, and relationship breakdown. FINDINGS: 3793 suspected suicides were recorded with an unadjusted monthly rate of 14·85 deaths per 100 000 people (from Jan 1, 2015, to Jan 31, 2020) before the declaration, and 443 suspected suicides were recorded with an unadjusted monthly rate of 14·07 deaths per 100 000 people (Feb 1, 2020, onwards) after the declaration. An interrupted time-series Poisson regression model unadjusted (rate ratio [RR] 0·94, 95% CI 0·82-1·06) and adjusted for overdispersion, seasonality, and pre-exposure trends (RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·83-1·25) indicated no evidence of a change in suspected suicide rates. We found no absolute or relative increases in the motives for suspected suicides, including recent unemployment, financial problems, relationship breakdown, or domestic violence from February to August, 2020, compared with the pre-exposure period. INTERPRETATION: There does not yet appear to be an overall change in the suspected suicide rate in the 7 months since Queensland declared a public health emergency. Despite this, COVID-19 has contributed to some suspected suicides in Queensland. Ongoing community spread and increasing death rates of COVID-19, and its impact on national economies and mental health, reinforces the need for governments to maintain the monitoring and reporting of suicide mortality in real time. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cause of Death/trends , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Police/statistics & numerical data , Queensland
17.
Crisis ; 42(6): 474-487, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899881

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious disease-related public health emergencies (epidemics) may increase suicide risk, and high-quality evidence is needed to guide an international response. Aims: We investigated the potential impacts of epidemics on suicide-related outcomes. Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, PsyArXiv, medRxiv, and bioRxiv from inception to May 13-16, 2020. Inclusion criteria: primary studies, reviews, and meta-analyses; reporting the impact of epidemics; with a primary outcome of suicide, suicidal behavior, suicidal ideation, and/or self-harm. Exclusion criteria: not concerned with suicide-related outcomes; not suitable for data extraction. PROSPERO registration: #CRD42020187013. Results: Eight primary papers were included, examining the effects of five epidemics on suicide-related outcomes. There was evidence of increased suicide rates among older adults during SARS and in the year following the epidemic (possibly motivated by social disconnectedness, fears of virus infection, and concern about burdening others) and associations between SARS/Ebola exposure and increased suicide attempts. A preprint study reported associations between COVID-19 distress and past-month suicidal ideation. Limitations: Few studies have investigated the topic; these are of relatively low methodological quality. Conclusion: Findings support an association between previous epidemics and increased risk of suicide-related outcomes. Research is needed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on suicide outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Aged , Emergencies , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation
18.
HRB Open Res ; 3: 49, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841458

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Covid-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020. Since then, governments have implemented unprecedented public health measures to contain the virus. This study will provide evidence to inform responses to the pandemic by: i) estimating population prevalence and trends of self-reported symptoms of Covid-19 and the proportions of symptomatic individuals and household contacts testing positive for Covid-19; ii) describing acceptance and compliance with physical-distancing measures, explore effects of public health measures on physical, mental and social wellbeing; iii) developing a mathematical network model to inform decisions on the optimal levels of physical distancing measures. Methods: Two cross-sectional nationally-representative telephone surveys will be conducted in Ireland using random digit-dialling, with response rates estimates based on proportion of non-operational and non-answering numbers. The first survey with four waves in May and June will address adherence to social distancing measures and whether the respondent or other household members are or have been unwell during the preceding two weeks with one or more symptoms of Covid-19. The second survey with three waves in June, July and September will address knowledge, attitudes, and compliance towards physical-distancing measures and physical, mental and social wellbeing. The mathematical network model will be developed for all-Ireland (on various levels of spatial granularity including the scale of counties and electoral divisions) based on outputs from both cross-sectional surveys and relevant publicly available data to inform decisions on optimal levels and duration of physical distancing measures. Discussion: This study will contribute to our understanding of the impact and sustainability of public health measures of the Covid-19 pandemic. Findings will have long-lasting benefits, informing decision-making on the best levels, and duration of physical-distancing measures, balancing a range of factors including capacity of the health service with the effects on individuals' wellbeing and economic disruption. Findings will be shared with key policy-makers.

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