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Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 66, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408349


BACKGROUND: To date, there is no specific antiviral therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Since there is no specific therapy against SARS-CoV2, current efforts aim to prevent contagion through public health measures and develop a protective vaccine. While waiting for the latter, it is necessary to evaluate the drugs that at least, in initial studies, suggested some degree of utility in the management of Covid-19 or its complications. The main objective of the study was to describe the clinical manifestations and outcomes of patients with severe Covid-19 Pneumonia treated with corticosteroids and colchicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study of 301 adult patients with Covid-19 Pneumonia confirmed by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for SARS-CoV2 (RT-PCR SARS-CoV2), Berlin protocol, who required hospitalization in three hospitals in Antioquia, Colombia. Patients were treated according to the institutional protocol (from March 20, 2020 to June 30, 2020) with corticosteroid if the patient required supplemental oxygen. From July 1, 2020, the management protocol changed with the addition of colchicine to all patients admitted to the institutions. The treatment was supervised and monitored by the same specialist in Infectology of the institutions. We describe the clinical manifestations and outcomes of the patients who received these treatments. The information of the patients was analyzed according to the outcome of interest (alive/dead) with univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measures to adjust the variables that presented statistical association. RESULTS: All patients had pneumonia documented by chest computed tomography with ground glass images and presented an alveolar pressure/inspired oxygen fraction (PaFi) less than 300. Three hundred one patients were included, 240 (79.7%) received corticosteroids, within these 145 (48.2%) received colchicine also, and the remaining 61 (20.3%) patients did not receive corticosterioids or colchicine. Mortality in the group that received colchicine was lower compared to the group that did not receive it (9.6 vs 14.6%, p-value = 0.179). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with corticosteroids and colchicine for managing patients with severe Covid-19 Pneumonia was associated with low mortality at the hospital level. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required to evaluate the effect of corticosteroids and colchicine on complications or death from Covid-19.

Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Colombia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Treatment Outcome
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252057, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242247


BACKGROUND: There is no effective therapy for the severe acute respiratory syndrome by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) responsible for the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). To date, dexamethasone has shown a decrease in mortality in patients who require oxygen, especially those with invasive mechanical ventilation. However, it is unknown if another corticosteroid can be used, the optimal dose and its duration, to achieve a better clinical outcome. The objective of the study was to compare the differences in clinical outcome and laboratory results in hospitalized patients with severe SARS-CoV2 Pneumonia treated with dexamethasone at 6 mg doses versus patients treated with high-dose methylprednisolone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ambispective cohort study with survival analysis of 216 patients diagnosed with severe Covid-19 pneumonia confirmed by polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV2 by Berlin protocol, who were hospitalized in a high-complexity clinic in Medellín, Colombia. The patients should also have supplementary oxygen and radiological confirmation of Pneumonia by chest tomography. Sample size was not calculated since the total population that met the inclusion criteria was evaluated. 111 patients were treated with the institutional protocol with intravenous dexamethasone 6 mg QD for seven to 10 days if they required oxygen. Since September 15, 2020, the hospitalization protocol of the clinic was modified by the Infectious Diseases and Pulmonology service, recommending a high dose of methylprednisolone of 250 to 500 mg every day for three days with a subsequent change to oral prednisone 50 mg every day for 14 days. The protocol was not applied in the intensive care unit, where dexamethasone continued to be administered. The clinical outcome and differences in laboratory results of the patients who received dexamethasone vs. the prospective cohort that received methylprednisolone from September 15 to October 31, 2020, were evaluated. Follow-up was carried out by outpatient consultation one month after discharge or by telephone, inquiring about readmission or living-dead status. RESULTS: 216 patients had Covid-19 pneumonia documented by ground-glass imaging and alveolar pressure / inspired oxygen fraction (PaFi) less than 300. 111 patients received dexamethasone (DXM) and 105 received methylprednisolone (MTP). Patients in the DXM group evolved to severe ARDS in a higher proportion (26.1% vs 17.1% than the MTP group). Upon completion 4 days of treatment with parenteral corticosteroid, laboratory markers of severity decreased significantly in the group that received MTP, CRP 2.85 (2.3-3.8) vs 7.2 (5.4-9.8), (p-value < 0.0001), D-dimer 691 (612-847) vs 1083 (740-1565) (p-value = 0.04) and DHL 273 (244-289) vs 355 (270.6-422) (p-value = 0.01). After starting the corticosteroid, transfer to the intensive care unit (4.8% vs. 14.4%) and mortality (9,5% vs. 17.1%) was lower in the group that received MTP. Recovery time was shorter in patients treated with MTP, three days (3-4) vs. DXM 6 days (5-8) (p-value < 0.0001). At 30-day follow-up, 88 (92.6%) were alive in MTP vs 58 (63.1%) of those who received dexamethasone. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the treatment of severe Covid-19 Pneumonia with high-dose methylprednisolone for three days followed by oral prednisone for 14 days, compared with 6 mg dexamethasone for 7 to 10 days, statistically significantly decreased the recovery time, the need for transfer to intensive care and the severity markers C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer and LDH. Randomized controlled studies with methylprednisolone are required to corroborate its effect, and studies in a population hospitalized in intensive care wards.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome