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Front Pediatr ; 10: 928612, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199083


The new COVID-19 disease is caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), that probably originated in Wuhan, China, and has currently infected 505,817,953 people and caused 6,213,876 deaths in the world. On the American continent, 152,265,980 cases and 2,717,108 deaths have been reported to WHO (World Health Organization). The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region presents an epidemiological challenge due to its population's heterogeneity and socioeconomic inequality. A particularly vulnerable population is that of children with cancer, and their mortality from COVID-19 has been reported to be 3.6% globally. This work aimed to study the lethality of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with cancer in the Latin American region. Our objective was to systematically review published scientific literature and search hospital databases in Latin America to explore mortality in this region. A median of mortality of 9.8% was found in the articles analyzed. In addition, we collected five databases from Latin American hospitals. We concluded that there was an underestimation in the mortality registry of this group of patients in the analyzed region. Therefore, although the causes are unknown, it is necessary to strengthen the case-reporting system to determine the reality in complex and particular areas such as Latin America.

PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263679, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742002


BACKGROUND: Reported cases of COVID-19 may be underestimated due to mild or asymptomatic cases and a low testing rate in the general population. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population and how it compares with the data on SARS-CoV-2 cases reported by a national health surveillance system (SNVS 2.0). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a population-based, seroepidemiological, cross-sectional study in the city of Puerto Madryn, a middle size city in the Province of Chubut, Argentina. The study period was between March 3 and April 17, 2021. The sample size was calculated using the technique of calculation of confidence intervals for a proportion. Participants were selected using stratified and cluster probability sampling. A total of 1405 subjects were invited to participate in the study. Participants were divided into the following four age groups: 1) 0 to 14, 2) 15 to 39, 3) 40 to 64, and 4) 65 or older. After informed consent was obtained, a blood sample was taken by puncture of the fingertip, and a structured questionnaire was administered to evaluate demographics, socioeconomic status, level of education, comorbidities and symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. COVID-19 seroprevalence was documented using an immunoenzymatic test for the in vitro detection of IgG antibodies specific to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 987 participants completed the survey. Seropositivity in the full study population was 39,2% and in those under 15 years of age, 47.1%. Cases reported by the SNSV 2.0 amounted to 9.35% of the total population and 1.4% of those under 15 years of age. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of COVID-19 infection in the general population is four times higher than the number of cases reported by the SNVS 2.0 in the city of Puerto Madryn. For each child under the age of 15 identified by the SNVS 2.0 with COVID-19, there are more than 30 unrecognized infections. Seroepidemiological studies are important to define the real extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a particular community. Children may play a significant role in the progression of the current pandemic.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Sample Size , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246793, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079373


BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Latin America. We present findings from a nationwide study in Argentina. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is disease severity measures and risk factors are associated with admission to an intensive care unit and mortality? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the COVID-19 database of the Integrated Argentina Health Information System, encompassing the period of March 3rd to October 2nd, 2020, using a standardized case report form that included information on contact history, clinical signs and symptoms, and clinical diagnosis. Information was collected at the initial site of care and follow-up conducted through calls by the regional healthcare authorities. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as having a positive result through sequencing or real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. RESULTS: RT-PCR testing was positive in 738,776 cases. Complete datasets were available for analysis in 207,079 cases. Mean age was 42.9±18.8 years, 50.0% were males. Frequent co-existing conditions included hypertension (19.2%), diabetes (9.7%), asthma (6.1%) and obesity (5.2%). Most common symptoms included fever (58.5%), cough (58.0%), headache (45.4%), and sore throat (42.1%). Death or ICU admission were independently associated with older age, male, coma, dyspnea or tachypnea, and seizures, with underlying co-morbidities such as immunodeficiency, chronic renal failure, and liver disease showing the strongest effects. INTERPRETATION: Most cases of COVID-19 diagnosed in Argentina were mild and had a favorable outcome, but fatality rates were relatively elevated. Risk factors for adverse outcome included older age, male sex, coma and seizures, and the concurrent presence of several morbidities. These data may be useful for healthcare providers and healthcare policy makers of low-middle income and Latin American countries to guide decisions toward optimized care during the pandemic.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adult , Argentina/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult