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1.
J Virol ; 97(6): e0028623, 2023 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315599

ABSTRACT

We identified neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants (including Omicron variants BA.5 and BA.2.75) from individuals who received two doses of mRNA vaccination after they had been infected with the D614G virus. We named them MO1, MO2, and MO3. Among them, MO1 showed particularly high neutralizing activity against authentic variants: D614G, Delta, BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.2.75, and BA.5. Furthermore, MO1 suppressed BA.5 infection in hamsters. A structural analysis revealed that MO1 binds to the conserved epitope of seven variants, including Omicron variants BA.5 and BA.2.75, in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein. MO1 targets an epitope conserved among Omicron variants BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 in a unique binding mode. Our findings confirm that D614G-derived vaccination can induce neutralizing antibodies that recognize the epitopes conserved among the SARS-CoV-2 variants. IMPORTANCE Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 acquired escape ability from host immunity and authorized antibody therapeutics and thereby have been spreading worldwide. We reported that patients infected with an early SARS-CoV-2 variant, D614G, and who received subsequent two-dose mRNA vaccination have high neutralizing antibody titer against Omicron lineages. It was speculated that the patients have neutralizing antibodies broadly effective against SARS-CoV-2 variants by targeting common epitopes. Here, we explored human monoclonal antibodies from B cells of the patients. One of the monoclonal antibodies, named MO1, showed high potency against broad SARS-CoV-2 variants including BA.2.75 and BA.5 variants. The results prove that monoclonal antibodies that have common neutralizing epitopes among several Omicrons were produced in patients infected with D614G and who received mRNA vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Epitopes/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(7): 1064-1072, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Omicron variants with immune evasion have emerged, and they continue to mutate rapidly, raising concerns about the weakening of vaccine efficacy, and the very elderly populations are vulnerable to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, to investigate the effect of multiple doses of mRNA vaccine for the newly emerged variants on these populations, cross-neutralizing antibody titers were examined against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, including BQ.1.1 and XBB. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from residents at four long-term care facilities in Hyogo prefecture, Japan (median age, 91 years), after 3rd (n = 67) and 4th (n = 48) mRNA vaccinations, from April to October 2022. A live virus microneutralization assay was performed to determine the neutralizing antibody titers in participants' sera. RESULTS: After 3rd vaccination, cross-neutralizing antibody prevalence against conventional (D614G) virus, Delta, Omicron BA.2, BA.5, BA.2.75, BQ.1.1, and XBB were 100%, 97%, 81%, 51%, 67%, 4%, and 21%, respectively. After 4th vaccination, the antibody positivity rates increased to 100%, 100%, 98%, 79%, 92%, 31%, and 52%, respectively. The 4th vaccination significantly increased cross-neutralizing antibody titers against all tested variants. CONCLUSION: The positivity rates for BQ.1.1 and XBB increased after 4th vaccination, although the titer value was lower than those of BA.5 and BA.2.75. Considering the rapid mutation of viruses and the efficacy of vaccines, it may be necessary to create a system that can develop vaccines suitable for each epidemic in consideration of the epidemic of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger , Antibodies, Viral
5.
J Infect Dis ; 226(8): 1391-1395, 2022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831182

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant omicron is now under investigation. We evaluated cross-neutralizing activity against omicron in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent patients (n = 23) who had received 2 doses of an mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273). Intriguingly, after the second vaccination, the neutralizing antibody titers of subjects against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including omicron, all became seropositive, and significant fold-increases (21.1-52.0) were seen regardless of the disease severity. Our findings thus demonstrate that 2 doses of mRNA vaccination to SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patients can induce cross-neutralizing activity against omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2210780, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825764

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although 2 and 3 doses of vaccine have been implemented against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the level of immunity achieved by these additional vaccinations remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the induction of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant after 2 and 3 doses of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine among recipients of different ages. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort study was conducted from June 1, 2021, to January 12, 2022, among 82 physicians at Kobe University Hospital who had received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rates of positive test results and the titers of neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron variant after 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine were compared with those against other variants and compared among 3 age groups (≤38 years [younger age group], 39-58 years [intermediate age group], and ≥59 years [older age group]). Results: A total of 82 physicians (71 men [87%]; median age, 44 years [IQR, 33-58 years]) participated; 31 (38%) were in the younger age group, 32 (39%) were in the intermediate age group, and 19 (23%) were in the older age group. At 2 months after 2 doses of the vaccine, 23 participants (28%) had neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron variant, with a titer of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2-1.4), which was 11.8-fold (95% CI, 9.9-13.9) lower than the titer against the D614G variant and the lowest among the variants tested. Although the titer of the neutralizing antibody against the Delta variant tended to be low among the older age group (2.9 [95% CI, 2.0-4.1]), the titers of the neutralizing antibody against the Omicron variant were low among all age groups (younger age group, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1-1.6]; intermediate age group, 1.3 (95% CI, [95% CI, 1.1-1.5]; and older age group, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0-1.4]). At 7 months after 2 doses of the vaccine, 5 participants (6%) had the neutralizing antibody against the Omicron variant, but after the booster (third dose) vaccination, all 72 participants who received the booster had the neutralizing antibody, and the titer was 41 (95% CI, 34-49), much higher than that at 7 months after 2 doses of the vaccine (1.0 [95% CI, 1.0-1.1]). This increase in titers was observed regardless of age groups; the titers were 44 (95% CI, 32-59) among the younger age group, 44 (95% CI, 32-59) among the intermediate age group, and 30 (95% CI, 22-41) among the older age group. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of 82 Japanese participants, 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine did not induce sufficient neutralizing antibody against the Omicron variant. However, booster vaccination was associated with induction of a high level of neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron variant, irrespective of the recipient's age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266270, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775458

ABSTRACT

Continuous appearance of SARS-CoV-2 variants and mass vaccination have been intricately influencing on the COVID-19 situation. To elucidate the current status in Japan, we analyzed totally 2,000 sera in August (n = 1,000) and December (n = 1,000) 2021 collected from individuals who underwent a health check-up. The anti-N seropositive rate were 2.1% and 3.9% in August and December 2021, respectively, demonstrating a Delta variant endemic during that time; it was approximately twofold higher than the rate based on the PCR-based diagnosis. The anti-S seropositive rate was 38.7% in August and it reached 90.8% in December, in concordance with the vaccination rate in Japan. In the December cohort, 78.7% of the sera showed neutralizing activity against the Delta variant, whereas that against the Omicron was much lower at 36.6%. These analyses revealed that effective immunity against the Delta variant was established in December 2021, however, prompt three-dose vaccination is needed to overcome Omicron's outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Vaccination
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 773652, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742214

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) has become one of the most pressing issues in public health. To control VOCs, it is important to know which COVID-19 convalescent sera have cross-neutralizing activity against VOCs and how long the sera maintain this protective activity. Methods: Sera of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 from March 2020 to January 2021 and admitted to Hyogo Prefectural Kakogawa Medical Center were selected. Blood was drawn from patients at 1-3, 3-6, and 6-8 months post onset. Then, a virus neutralization assay against SARS-CoV-2 variants (D614G mutation as conventional strain; B.1.1.7, P.1, and B.1.351 as VOCs) was performed using authentic viruses. Results: We assessed 97 sera from 42 patients. Sera from 28 patients showed neutralizing activity that was sustained for 3-8 months post onset. The neutralizing antibody titer against D614G significantly decreased in sera of 6-8 months post onset compared to those of 1-3 months post onset. However, the neutralizing antibody titers against the three VOCs were not significantly different among 1-3, 3-6, and 6-8 months post onset. Discussion: Our results indicate that neutralizing antibodies that recognize the common epitope for several variants may be maintained for a long time, while neutralizing antibodies having specific epitopes for a variant, produced in large quantities immediately after infection, may decrease quite rapidly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(10): ofab430, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of March 2021, Japan is facing a fourth wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To prevent further spread of infection, sera cross-neutralizing activity of patients previously infected with conventional SARS-CoV-2 against novel variants is important but has not been firmly established. METHODS: We investigated the neutralizing potency of 81 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' sera from the first to fourth waves of the pandemic against SARS-CoV-2 D614G, B.1.1.7, P.1, and B.1.351 variants using their authentic viruses. RESULTS: Most sera had neutralizing activity against all variants, showing similar activity against B.1.1.7 and D614G, but lower activity especially against B.1.351. In the fourth wave, sera-neutralizing activity against B.1.1.7 was significantly higher than that against any other variants, including D614G. The sera-neutralizing activity in less severe patients was lower than that of more severe patients for all variants. CONCLUSIONS: The cross-neutralizing activity of convalescent sera was effective against all variants but was potentially weaker for B.1.351. The high neutralizing activity specific to B.1.1.7 in the fourth wave suggests that mutations in the virus might cause conformational change of its spike protein, which affects immune recognition of D614G. Our results indicate that individuals who recover from COVID-19 could be protected from the severity caused by infection with newly emerging variants.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 223(7): 1145-1149, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174909

ABSTRACT

Most patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience asymptomatic disease or mild symptoms, but some have critical symptoms requiring intensive care. It is important to determine how patients with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 react to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and suppress virus spread. Innate immunity is important for evasion from the first virus attack, and it may play an important role in the pathogenesis in these patients. We measured serum cytokine levels in 95 patients with COVID-19 during the infection's acute phase and report that significantly higher interleukin 12 and 2 levels were induced in patients with asymptomatic or mild disease than in those with moderate or severe disease, indicating the key roles of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of asymptomatic or mild COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-12/blood , Interleukin-2/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Interleukin-12/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
11.
JMA J ; 4(1): 41-49, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081643

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is spreading rapidly all over the world. The Japanese government lifted the state of emergency, announced in April 2020, on May 25, but there are still sporadic clusters. Asymptomatic patients who can transmit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cause some of these clusters. It is thus urgent to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and their neutralizing activity. We conducted a cross-sectional study of >10,000 samples at hospitals in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. METHODS: Between August 6 and October 1, 2020, we collected samples of residual blood from the patients who visited or were admitted to five hospitals and a foundation in Hyogo. We tested the samples for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Sera that were positive by ECLIA or CLEIA were analyzed by an immunochromatographic (IC) test and neutralizing activity assay. RESULTS: We tested 10,377 samples from patients aged between 0 and 99 years old; 27 cases (0.26%) were positive on the ECLIA, and 51 cases (0.49%) were positive on CLEIA. In the 14 cases that tested positive on both ECLIA and CLEIA, the positive rates on the IC test and for neutralizing activity were high (85% and 92%, respectively). In 50 cases (0.48%) that were positive by either ECLIA or CLEIA, the corresponding rates were low (20% and 6%, respectively). The positive rate of neutralizing antibody was 0.15%. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that most Hyogo Prefecture residents still do not have antibodies and should avoid the risk of incurring a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two or more antibody tests should be required for seroepidemiological studies of the antibody for SARS-CoV-2, and a neutralizing activity assay is also essential.

12.
JMA J ; 4(1): 1-7, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084276

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit a wide clinical spectrum ranging from mild respiratory symptoms to critical and fatal diseases, and older individuals are known to be more severely affected. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon is unknown. A neutralizing antibody against viruses is known to be important to eliminate the virus. In addition, this antibody is induced at high levels in patients with severe COVID-19, followed by a termination of virus replication. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibit high levels of cytokines/chemokines, even after the disappearance of the virus. This indicates that cytokines/chemokines play significant roles in disease severity. These findings also suggest that antiviral therapy (monoclonal antibody and/or convalescent plasma therapy) should be administered early to eliminate the virus, followed by steroid treatment after viral genome disappearance, especially in patients with severe symptoms.

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