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1.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabm4908, 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846321

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.621 (Mu) variant emerged in January 2021 and was categorized as a variant of interest by the World Health Organization in August 2021. This designation prompted us to study the sensitivity of this variant to antibody neutralization. In a live virus neutralization assay with serum samples from individuals vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccines, we measured neutralization antibody titers against B.1.621, an early isolate (spike 614D), and a variant of concern (B.1.351, beta variant). We observed reduced neutralizing antibody titers against the B.1.621 variant (3.4 to 7-fold reduction, depending on the serum sample and time after the second vaccination) compared to the early isolate and a similar reduction when compared to B.1.351. Likewise, convalescent serum from hamsters previously infected with an early isolate neutralized B.1.621 to a lower degree. Despite this antibody titer reduction, hamsters could not be efficiently re-challenged with the B.1.621 variant, suggesting the immune response to the first infection is adequate to provide protection against a subsequent infection with the B.1.621 variant.

2.
Cell Rep ; 39(3): 110688, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763614

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant with a surprising number of spike mutations raises concerns about reduced sensitivity of this virus to antibody neutralization and subsequent vaccine breakthrough infections. Here, we infect Moderna mRNA-vaccinated or previously infected hamsters with the Omicron BA.1 variant. While the Moderna mRNA vaccine reduces viral loads in the respiratory tissues upon challenge with an early S-614G isolate, the vaccine efficacy is not as pronounced after infection with the Omicron variant. Previous infection with the early SARS-CoV-2 isolate prevents replication after rechallenge with either virus in the lungs of previously infected hamsters, but the Omicron variant replicates efficiently in nasal turbinate tissue. These results experimentally demonstrate in an animal model that the antigenic changes in the Omicron variant are responsible for vaccine breakthrough and re-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Mesocricetus , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
3.
Cell Rep ; 38(7): 110394, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719436

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant (B.1.617.2) raises concerns about potential reduced sensitivity of the virus to antibody neutralization and subsequent vaccine breakthrough infections. Here, we use a live virus neutralization assay with sera from Pfizer- and Moderna-vaccinated individuals to examine neutralizing antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 and observe a 3.9- and 2.7-fold reduction, respectively, in neutralizing antibody titers against the Delta variant compared with an early isolate bearing only a D614G substitution in its spike protein. We observe similar reduced sensitivity with sera from hamsters that were previously infected with an early isolate of SARS-CoV-2. Despite this reduction in neutralizing antibody titers against the Delta variant, hamsters previously infected (up to 15 months earlier) with an early isolate are protected from infection with the Delta variant, suggesting that the immune response to the first infection is sufficient to provide protection against subsequent infection with the Delta variant.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load
4.
mBio ; : e0304421, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662302

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide since December 2019, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although vaccines for this virus have been developed rapidly, repurposing drugs approved to treat other diseases remains an invaluable treatment strategy. Here, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of drugs on SARS-CoV-2 replication in a hamster infection model and in in vitro assays. Favipiravir significantly suppressed virus replication in hamster lungs. Remdesivir inhibited virus replication in vitro, but was not effective in the hamster model. However, GS-441524, a metabolite of remdesivir, effectively suppressed virus replication in hamsters. Co-administration of favipiravir and GS-441524 more efficiently reduced virus load in hamster lungs than did single administration of either drug for both the prophylactic and therapeutic regimens; prophylactic co-administration also efficiently inhibited lung inflammation in the infected animals. Furthermore, pretreatment of hamsters with favipiravir and GS-441524 effectively protected them from virus transmission via respiratory droplets upon exposure to infected hamsters. Repurposing and co-administration of antiviral drugs may help combat COVID-19. IMPORTANCE During a pandemic, repurposing drugs that are approved for other diseases is a quick and realistic treatment option. In this study, we found that co-administration of favipiravir and the remdesivir metabolite GS-441524 more effectively blocked SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lungs of Syrian hamsters than either favipiravir or GS-441524 alone as part of a prophylactic or therapeutic regimen. Prophylactic co-administration also reduced the severity of lung inflammation. Moreover, co-administration of these drugs to naive hamsters efficiently protected them from airborne transmission of the virus from infected animals. Since both drugs are nucleotide analogs that interfere with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of many RNA viruses, these findings may also help encourage co-administration of antivirals to combat future pandemics.

5.
Cell reports ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1661117

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 variants accumulate mutations, there is a risk of ineffective neutralizing antibodies against new variants and potential re-infection. Halfmann et al. report that, in the hamster model, previous infection with an early prototypical SARS-CoV-2 isolate prevents re-infection of the Delta variant and its transmission to naïve hamsters.

6.
mBio ; 12(5): e0198721, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494967

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised concerns about the detrimental effects of antibodies. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection is one of the biggest concerns in terms of not only the antibody reaction to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) upon reinfection with the virus but also the reaction to COVID-19 vaccines. In this study, we evaluated ADE of infection by using COVID-19 convalescent-phase plasma and BHK cells expressing human Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). We found that FcγRIIA and FcγRIIIA mediated modest ADE of infection against SARS-CoV-2. Although ADE of infection was observed in monocyte-derived macrophages infected with SARS-CoV-2, including its variants, proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression was not upregulated in macrophages. SARS-CoV-2 infection thus produces antibodies that elicit ADE of infection, but these antibodies do not contribute to excess cytokine production by macrophages. IMPORTANCE Viruses infect cells mainly via specific receptors at the cell surface. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection is an alternative mechanism of infection for viruses to infect immune cells that is mediated by antibodies and IgG receptors (FcγRs). Because ADE of infection contributes to the pathogenesis of some viruses, such as dengue virus and feline coronavirus, it is important to evaluate the precise mechanism of ADE and its contribution to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Here, using convalescent-phase plasma from COVID-19 patients, we found that two types of FcγRs, FcγRIIA and FcγRIIIA, mediate ADE of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although ADE of infection was observed for SARS-CoV-2 and its recent variants, proinflammatory cytokine production in monocyte-derived macrophages was not upregulated. These observations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection produces antibodies that elicit ADE of infection, but these antibodies may not be involved in aberrant cytokine release by macrophages during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/physiology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, IgG/genetics
7.
Immunohorizons ; 5(6): 466-476, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359325

ABSTRACT

Lasting immunity will be critical for overcoming COVID-19. However, the factors associated with the development of high titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs and how long those Abs persist remain incompletely defined. In particular, an understanding of the relationship between COVID-19 symptoms and anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs is limited. To address these unknowns, we quantified serum anti-SARS- CoV-2 Abs in clinically diverse COVID-19 convalescent human subjects 5 wk (n = 113) and 3 mo (n = 79) after symptom resolution with three methods: a novel multiplex assay to quantify IgG against four SARS-CoV-2 Ags, a new SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-angiotensin converting enzyme 2 inhibition assay, and a SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing assay. We then identified clinical and demographic factors, including never-before-assessed COVID-19 symptoms, that consistently correlate with high anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab levels. We detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs in 98% of COVID-19 convalescent subjects 5 wk after symptom resolution, and Ab levels did not decline at 3 mo. Greater disease severity, older age, male sex, higher body mass index, and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score correlated with increased anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab levels. Moreover, we report for the first time (to our knowledge) that COVID-19 symptoms, most consistently fever, body aches, and low appetite, correlate with higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab levels. Our results provide robust and new insights into the development and persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
8.
PLoS Biol ; 19(6): e3001265, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278162

ABSTRACT

The search for potential antibody-based diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics for pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has focused almost exclusively on the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Coronavirus membrane (M), ORF3a, and ORF8 proteins are humoral immunogens in other coronaviruses (CoVs) but remain largely uninvestigated for SARS-CoV-2. Here, we use ultradense peptide microarray mapping to show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces robust antibody responses to epitopes throughout the SARS-CoV-2 proteome, particularly in M, in which 1 epitope achieved excellent diagnostic accuracy. We map 79 B cell epitopes throughout the SARS-CoV-2 proteome and demonstrate that antibodies that develop in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection bind homologous peptide sequences in the 6 other known human CoVs. We also confirm reactivity against 4 of our top-ranking epitopes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Illness severity correlated with increased reactivity to 9 SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in S, M, N, and ORF3a in our population. Our results demonstrate previously unknown, highly reactive B cell epitopes throughout the full proteome of SARS-CoV-2 and other CoV proteins.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Proteome/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 660-663, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048933

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 readily transmits between domestic cats. We found that domestic cats that recover from an initial infection might be protected from reinfection. However, we found long-term persistence of inflammation and other lung lesions after infection, despite a lack of clinical symptoms and limited viral replication in the lungs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/immunology , Cat Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cats , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Virus Replication/immunology
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16587-16595, 2020 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611003

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2) was detected in Wuhan, China, that spread rapidly around the world, with severe consequences for human health and the global economy. Here, we assessed the replicative ability and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in Syrian hamsters. SARS-CoV-2 isolates replicated efficiently in the lungs of hamsters, causing severe pathological lung lesions following intranasal infection. In addition, microcomputed tomographic imaging revealed severe lung injury that shared characteristics with SARS-CoV-2-infected human lung, including severe, bilateral, peripherally distributed, multilobular ground glass opacity, and regions of lung consolidation. SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters mounted neutralizing antibody responses and were protected against subsequent rechallenge with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, passive transfer of convalescent serum to naïve hamsters efficiently suppressed the replication of the virus in the lungs even when the serum was administrated 2 d postinfection of the serum-treated hamsters. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that this Syrian hamster model will be useful for understanding SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and testing vaccines and antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Ribonucleoproteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Virus Replication
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