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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1361, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused over 305 million infections and nearly 5.5 million deaths globally. With complete eradication unlikely, organizations will need to evaluate their risk and the benefits of mitigation strategies, including the effects of regular asymptomatic testing. We developed a web application and R package that provides estimates and visualizations to aid the assessment of organizational infection risk and testing benefits to facilitate decision-making, which combines internal and community information with malleable assumptions. RESULTS: Our web application, covidscreen, presents estimated values of risk metrics in an intuitive graphical format. It shows the current expected number of active, primarily community-acquired infections among employees in an organization. It calculates and explains the absolute and relative risk reduction of an intervention, relative to the baseline scenario, and shows the value of testing vaccinated and unvaccinated employees. In addition, the web interface allows users to profile risk over a chosen range of input values. The performance and output are illustrated using simulations and a real-world example from the employee testing program of a pediatric oncology specialty hospital. CONCLUSIONS: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve, covidscreen can assist organizations in making informed decisions about whether to incorporate covid test based screening as part of their on-campus risk-mitigation strategy. The web application, R package, and source code are freely available online (see "Availability of data and materials").


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
J Affect Disord ; 307: 215-220, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been substantial discussion as to whether the mental health and socio-economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic might impact suicide rates. Although India accounts for the largest proportion of global suicides, the early impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates in this country are unknown. METHODS: National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data were used to calculate annual suicide rates for the period 2010-2020, stratified by sex and state. Rate Ratios (RRs) stratified by sex and state were calculated to estimate the extent of change in suicide rates. RESULTS: Suicide rates in India generally showed a decreasing trend from 2010 until 2017, with the trend reversing after this period, particularly for males. Among males and females, the highest increase post 2017 was noted in 2020 (compared to 2017) (males: RR = 1.18 95% UI 1.17-1.19; females: RR = 1.05 95% UI 1.03-1.06). LIMITATION: Suicide rates based on the NCRB data might be an underestimation of the true suicide rates. CONCLUSION: Suicide rates in India increased during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, and although the increase in suicide rates, especially among males, predates the pandemic, the increase in suicide rates was highest in 2020, compared to increases in previous years. Further research is warranted to understand the potential ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide in India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics
4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(11): e29324, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380406

ABSTRACT

Childhood cancersurvivors may be differentially impacted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From April to June of 2020, we examined psychosocial/health concerns in 4148 adult survivors and 571 siblings. Although more survivors reported concerns about getting sick (p = .002) and needing hospitalization (p = .003) in general, survivors and siblings were comparably concerned about being infected with and the consequences of COVID-19. Cranial radiation was associated with social isolation (relative risk [RR] = 1.3, CI = 1.1-1.7), and central nervous system (CNS) tumors were associated with unemployment due to COVID-19 (RR = 1.7, CI = 1.2-2.2). Some survivors appear more vulnerable and may require more support to meet health care and vocational needs during COVID-19, though siblings also perceive substantial risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Neoplasms , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Siblings , Social Isolation , Unemployment
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Each year there are more than 800,000 deaths by suicide across the world, while India alone accounts for one third of female suicides and one fourth of male suicides worldwide. Responsible media reporting of suicide is an important suicide prevention intervention at the population level. There is sufficient evidence to show that the way suicide is reported and portrayed in the media can have a significant impact on individuals experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Recognizing the important role of the media in suicide prevention, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued guidelines for responsible reporting of suicides by the media. The Press Council of India, in 2019 endorsed WHO's guidelines for media reporting of suicides, however there is no evidence that the Indian media is complying with these guidelines. METHODS: To encourage responsible media reporting, we developed a scorecard to assess and rate media reports on suicide. We reviewed several resource documents that contained guidelines on responsible reporting of suicide. After consulting with a team of experts, we arrived at a scorecard that consisted of 10 positive and 10 negative parameters. RESULTS: We applied the scorecard to 1318 reports on suicide from 9 English language newspapers, with the highest readership in India between the dates of 1 April to 30 June 2020. For the articles analyzed, the average positive score across all newspapers was 1.32 and the average negative score was 3.31. DISCUSSION: The scorecard can be a useful tool to assess media reports on suicide and provide metrics for the same. It can facilitate improved monitoring and engagement with media organizations, who can quickly check their own reporting compliance to the WHO guidelines and compare how well they are performing compared to their peers over time.


Subject(s)
Suicide , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Mass Media , Suicidal Ideation , World Health Organization
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(3): 403-410, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059461

ABSTRACT

Among 146 nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swab pairs collected ≤7 days after illness onset, Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction assay for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR) diagnostic results were 95.2% concordant. However, NP swab cycle threshold values were lower (indicating more virus) in 66.7% of concordant-positive pairs, suggesting NP swabs may more accurately detect the amount of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Nasopharynx , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(3): 95-99, 2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040194

ABSTRACT

On December 14, 2020, the United Kingdom reported a SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC), lineage B.1.1.7, also referred to as VOC 202012/01 or 20I/501Y.V1.* The B.1.1.7 variant is estimated to have emerged in September 2020 and has quickly become the dominant circulating SARS-CoV-2 variant in England (1). B.1.1.7 has been detected in over 30 countries, including the United States. As of January 13, 2021, approximately 76 cases of B.1.1.7 have been detected in 12 U.S. states.† Multiple lines of evidence indicate that B.1.1.7 is more efficiently transmitted than are other SARS-CoV-2 variants (1-3). The modeled trajectory of this variant in the U.S. exhibits rapid growth in early 2021, becoming the predominant variant in March. Increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission might threaten strained health care resources, require extended and more rigorous implementation of public health strategies (4), and increase the percentage of population immunity required for pandemic control. Taking measures to reduce transmission now can lessen the potential impact of B.1.1.7 and allow critical time to increase vaccination coverage. Collectively, enhanced genomic surveillance combined with continued compliance with effective public health measures, including vaccination, physical distancing, use of masks, hand hygiene, and isolation and quarantine, will be essential to limiting the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Strategic testing of persons without symptoms but at higher risk of infection, such as those exposed to SARS-CoV-2 or who have frequent unavoidable contact with the public, provides another opportunity to limit ongoing spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mutation , United States/epidemiology
8.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003373, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922698

ABSTRACT

Muin Khoury and co-authors discuss anticipated contributions of genomics and other forms of large-scale data in public health.


Subject(s)
Big Data/supply & distribution , Precision Medicine/methods , Public Health/methods , Genomics/methods , Humans
10.
Science ; 369(6503): 582-587, 2020 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591377

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, with >365,000 cases in California as of 17 July 2020. We investigated the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Northern California from late January to mid-March 2020, using samples from 36 patients spanning nine counties and the Grand Princess cruise ship. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the cryptic introduction of at least seven different SARS-CoV-2 lineages into California, including epidemic WA1 strains associated with Washington state, with lack of a predominant lineage and limited transmission among communities. Lineages associated with outbreak clusters in two counties were defined by a single base substitution in the viral genome. These findings support contact tracing, social distancing, and travel restrictions to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in California and other states.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , California/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Ships , Travel , Washington
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