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1.
Blood ; 139(23): 3358-3359, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885275
2.
Vaccine ; 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895478

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Describe a case series of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after COVID-19 vaccination in Brazil that included ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, Ad26.COV2.S and BNT162b2 vaccines, describing their clinical and laboratory characteristics. METHODOLOGY: Descriptive case series study using Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz/AstraZeneca Brazil and National Immunization Program/Ministry of Health (NIP/MoH) data on COVID-19 AEFI surveillance. We obtained patient-level data from pharmacovigilance for AEFI surveillance and used both the NIP/MoH and Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz pharmacovigilance databases to create the study database. Thirty-nine cases of suspect VITT were included, 36 after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, one after BNT162b2 and two after Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. All cases were based on meeting the Brighton Collaboration criteria for VITT. The primary outcomes were clinical and laboratory features, site of thrombosis, and anti-PF4 ELISA, when available. RESULTS: Thirty-nine cases met the criteria, 38 of which were classified as level 1 and one as level 3 according to Brighton Collaboration. Most cases had the central nervous system (CNS) as the main site of thrombosis (21/39) and happened after the vaccine first dose (34/39). The median age of the cases was 41 years old (23 to 86 yo). Most of the cases (61.5%) occurred in women. The median interval between vaccination and onset of symptoms was 8 days (0-37 days). The platelet count and D-dimer count had median values of 34,000/µL and 19,235 µg FEU/L, respectively. The ELISA anti-PF4 antibody was positive in 18 samples. The overall mortality rate was 51% and was higher in cases of CNS thrombosis with intracerebral bleeding. CONCLUSION: Our case series shows that Brazilian VITT cases have similar clinical and laboratory profiles as demonstrated in the literature. Brazil has administered more than 300 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines (more than 110 million from ChAdOx1 nCoV-19). VITT seems to be a very rare but serious adverse event following COVID-19 immunization, especially adenoviral vector immunization.

3.
Transfus Med ; 2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868697

ABSTRACT

Faced with an evolving pandemic and a lack of clarity of the role of convalescent plasma for patients with COVID-19, the CONCOR-1 trial was launched. In 14 months the trial was designed, launched, completed, and submitted for publication. In total, 72 sites in three countries served by four blood suppliers randomised 940 patients. Many enablers facilitated the trial including: three study principal investigators to distribute the trial workload, diverse steering committee members, an international data safety monitoring committee, multiple statisticians and methodologists, virtual meeting platforms, REDCap data platform, pausing of non-COVID-19 trials, rapid approval pathways for institutional review boards and regulators, centralised institutional review boards in many locations, restriction of use of convalescent plasma to trial participants and the incredible dedication by research personnel. In future pandemics, we need to be prepared for rapid launch of trials. The protocols, consent forms, data collection tools, and procedures need to be in draft form ready for use at all times. We were well-prepared for blood shortages but should have anticipated the need to conduct trials with convalescent plasma. In this short article, we detail our lessons learned to inform researchers faced with the next pandemic pathogen.

4.
Blood Adv ; 6(14): 4228-4235, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862103

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but serious adverse syndrome occurring 5 to 30 days after adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccination. Therefore, a practical evaluation of clinical assessments and laboratory testing for VITT is needed to prevent significant adverse outcomes as the global use of adenoviral vector vaccines continues. We received the clinical information and blood samples of 156 patients in Canada with a suspected diagnosis of VITT between April and July 2021. The performance characteristics of various diagnostic laboratory tests were evaluated against the platelet factor 4 (PF4)-14C-serotonin release assay (SRA) including a commercial anti-PF4/heparin immunoglobulin G (IgG)/IgA/IgM enzyme immunoassay (EIA, PF4 Enhanced; Immucor), in-house IgG-specific anti-PF4 and anti-PF4/heparin-EIAs, the standard SRA, and the PF4/heparin-SRA. Of those, 43 (27.6%) had serologically confirmed VITT-positive based on a positive PF4-SRA result and 113 (72.4%) were VITT-negative. The commercial anti-PF4/heparin EIA, the in-house anti-PF4-EIA, and anti-PF4/heparin-EIA were positive for all 43 VITT-confirmed samples (100% sensitivity) with a few false-positive results (mean specificity, 95.6%). These immunoassays had specificities of 95.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.0-98.6), 96.5% (95% CI, 91.2-99.0), and 97.4% (95% CI, 92.4-99.5), respectively. Functional tests, including the standard SRA and PF4/heparin-SRA, had high specificities (100%), but poor sensitivities for VITT (16.7% [95% CI, 7.0-31.4]; and 46.2% [95% CI, 26.6-66.6], respectively). These findings suggest EIA assays that can directly detect antibodies to PF4 or PF4/heparin have excellent performance characteristics and may be useful as a diagnostic test if the F4-SRA is unavailable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Heparin , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis
5.
Semin Hematol ; 59(2): 89-96, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788341

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a novel prothrombotic disorder characterized by thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation identified in hundreds of recipients of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford/AstraZeneca), an adenovirus vector coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. VITT resembles heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in that patients have platelet-activating anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies; however, whereas heparin typically enhances platelet activation by HIT antibodies, VITT antibody-induced platelet activation is often inhibited in vitro by pharmacological concentrations of heparin. Further, the thrombotic complications in VITT feature much higher frequencies of atypical thrombosis, most notably cerebral vein thrombosis and splanchnic vein thrombosis, compared with HIT. In this review, we outline the treatments that have been used to manage this novel condition since its recognition in March 2021, including anticoagulation, high-dose intravenous immune globulin, therapeutic plasma exchange, corticosteroids, rituximab, and eculizumab. We discuss the controversial issue of whether heparin, which often inhibits VITT antibody-induced platelet activation, is harmful in the treatment of VITT. We also describe a case of "long VITT," describing the treatment challenges resulting from platelet-activating anti-PF4 antibodies that persisted for more than 9 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced
8.
Seminars in hematology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1728167

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a novel prothrombotic disorder characterized by thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation identified in hundreds of recipients of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford/AstraZeneca), an adenovirus vector coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. VITT resembles heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in that patients have platelet-activating anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies;however, whereas heparin typically enhances platelet activation by HIT antibodies, VITT antibody-induced platelet activation is often inhibited in vitro by pharmacological concentrations of heparin. Further, the thrombotic complications in VITT feature much higher frequencies of atypical thrombosis, most notably cerebral vein thrombosis and splanchnic vein thrombosis, compared with HIT. In this review, we outline the treatments that have been used to manage this novel condition since its recognition in March 2021, including anticoagulation, high-dose intravenous immune globulin, therapeutic plasma exchange, corticosteroids, rituximab, and eculizumab. We discuss the controversial issue of whether heparin, which often inhibits VITT antibody-induced platelet activation, is harmful in the treatment of VITT. We also describe a case of “long VITT”, describing the treatment challenges resulting from platelet-activating anti-PF4 antibodies that persisted for more than 9 months.

9.
Am J Hematol ; 97(6): 691-699, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704611

ABSTRACT

Patients with relapsed warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia (wAIHA) have limited treatment options. Fostamatinib is a potent, orally administered spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This phase 2 study evaluated the response to fostamatinib, administered at 150 mg BID orally with or without food in adults with wAIHA and active hemolysis with hemoglobin (Hgb) <10 g/dL who had failed at least one prior treatment. Hemoglobin levels and safety assessments were performed at visits every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was Hgb >10 g/dL with an increase of ≥2 g/dL from baseline by week 24 without rescue therapy or red blood cell transfusion. Eleven of 24 (46%) patients achieved the primary endpoint. Increases in median Hgb were detected at week 2 and sustained over time. Median lactate dehydrogenase levels and reticulocyte counts generally declined over time with little change in median haptoglobin levels. The most common adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea (42%), fatigue (42%), hypertension (27%), dizziness (27%), and insomnia (23%). AEs were manageable and consistent with the fostamatinib safety database of over 3900 patients across multiple diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, B-cell lymphoma, COVID-19, and ITP). No new safety signals were detected. Fostamatinib may be a promising therapeutic option for wAIHA. A randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study is nearing completion.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , COVID-19 , Adult , Aminopyridines , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Humans , Morpholines , Oxazines , Pyridines , Pyrimidines
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306571

ABSTRACT

Background: Convalescent plasma has been used for numerous viral diseases including influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and Ebola virus;however, evidence to support its use is weak. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus responsible for the 2019 global pandemic of COVID-19 community acquired pneumonia. We have undertaken a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: : CONCOR-1 is an open-label, multicenter, randomized trial. Inclusion criteria include: patients > 16 years;admitted to hospital with COVID-19 infection;receiving supplemental oxygen for respiratory complications of COVID-19;and, availability of blood group compatible CCP. Exclusion criteria are: onset of respiratory symptoms more than 12 days prior to randomization;intubated or planned for intubation;and previous severe reactions to plasma. Consenting patients will be randomized 2:1 to receive either approximately 500 mL of CCP or standard of care. CCP will be collected from donors who have recovered from COVID-19 and who have detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies quantified serologically. The primary outcome is intubation or death at Day 30. Secondary outcomes include ventilator free days, length of stay in intensive care or hospital, transfusion reactions, serious adverse events, and reduction in SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Exploratory analyses include patients who received CCP containing high titre antibodies. A sample size of 1200 patients gives 80% power to detect a 25% relative risk reduction assuming a 30% baseline risk of intubation or death at 30 days (two-sided test;α =0.05). An interim analysis and sample size re-estimation will be done by an unblinded independent biostatistician after primary outcome data are available for 50% of the target recruitment (n= 600). Discussion: This trial will determine whether CCP will reduce intubation or death non-intubated adults with COVID-19. The trial will also provide information on the role of and thresholds for SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and neutralization assays for donor qualification. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04348656;registered 16 April 2020;https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04348656?term=NCT04348656&draw=2&rank=1

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305059

ABSTRACT

Epidemics are a serious public health threat, and the resources for mitigating their effects are typically limited. Decision-makers face challenges in forecasting the demand for these resources as prior information about the disease is often not available, the behaviour of the disease can periodically change (either naturally or as a result of public health policies) and can differ by geographical region. In this work, we discuss a model that is suitable for short-term real-time supply and demand forecasting during emerging outbreaks without having to rely on demographic information. We propose a data-driven mixed-integer programming (MIP) resource allocation model that assigns available resources to maximize a notion of fairness among the resource-demanding entities. Numerical results from applying our MIP model to a COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma (CCP) case study suggest that our approach can help balance the supply and demand of limited products such as CCP and minimize the unmet demand ratios of the demand entities.

14.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1690-1702, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525402

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The evidence for benefit of convalescent plasma for critically ill patients with COVID-19 is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether convalescent plasma would improve outcomes for critically ill adults with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The ongoing Randomized, Embedded, Multifactorial, Adaptive Platform Trial for Community-Acquired Pneumonia (REMAP-CAP) enrolled and randomized 4763 adults with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 between March 9, 2020, and January 18, 2021, within at least 1 domain; 2011 critically ill adults were randomized to open-label interventions in the immunoglobulin domain at 129 sites in 4 countries. Follow-up ended on April 19, 2021. INTERVENTIONS: The immunoglobulin domain randomized participants to receive 2 units of high-titer, ABO-compatible convalescent plasma (total volume of 550 mL ± 150 mL) within 48 hours of randomization (n = 1084) or no convalescent plasma (n = 916). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary ordinal end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of intensive care unit-based organ support) up to day 21 (range, -1 to 21 days; patients who died were assigned -1 day). The primary analysis was an adjusted bayesian cumulative logistic model. Superiority was defined as the posterior probability of an odds ratio (OR) greater than 1 (threshold for trial conclusion of superiority >99%). Futility was defined as the posterior probability of an OR less than 1.2 (threshold for trial conclusion of futility >95%). An OR greater than 1 represented improved survival, more organ support-free days, or both. The prespecified secondary outcomes included in-hospital survival; 28-day survival; 90-day survival; respiratory support-free days; cardiovascular support-free days; progression to invasive mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal mechanical oxygenation, or death; intensive care unit length of stay; hospital length of stay; World Health Organization ordinal scale score at day 14; venous thromboembolic events at 90 days; and serious adverse events. RESULTS: Among the 2011 participants who were randomized (median age, 61 [IQR, 52 to 70] years and 645/1998 [32.3%] women), 1990 (99%) completed the trial. The convalescent plasma intervention was stopped after the prespecified criterion for futility was met. The median number of organ support-free days was 0 (IQR, -1 to 16) in the convalescent plasma group and 3 (IQR, -1 to 16) in the no convalescent plasma group. The in-hospital mortality rate was 37.3% (401/1075) for the convalescent plasma group and 38.4% (347/904) for the no convalescent plasma group and the median number of days alive and free of organ support was 14 (IQR, 3 to 18) and 14 (IQR, 7 to 18), respectively. The median-adjusted OR was 0.97 (95% credible interval, 0.83 to 1.15) and the posterior probability of futility (OR <1.2) was 99.4% for the convalescent plasma group compared with the no convalescent plasma group. The treatment effects were consistent across the primary outcome and the 11 secondary outcomes. Serious adverse events were reported in 3.0% (32/1075) of participants in the convalescent plasma group and in 1.3% (12/905) of participants in the no convalescent plasma group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among critically ill adults with confirmed COVID-19, treatment with 2 units of high-titer, ABO-compatible convalescent plasma had a low likelihood of providing improvement in the number of organ support-free days. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , ABO Blood-Group System , Adult , Aged , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Length of Stay , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Failure , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 2012-2024, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526091

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of convalescent plasma for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. Although most randomized controlled trials have shown negative results, uncontrolled studies have suggested that the antibody content could influence patient outcomes. We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma for adults with COVID-19 receiving oxygen within 12 d of respiratory symptom onset ( NCT04348656 ). Patients were allocated 2:1 to 500 ml of convalescent plasma or standard of care. The composite primary outcome was intubation or death by 30 d. Exploratory analyses of the effect of convalescent plasma antibodies on the primary outcome was assessed by logistic regression. The trial was terminated at 78% of planned enrollment after meeting stopping criteria for futility. In total, 940 patients were randomized, and 921 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Intubation or death occurred in 199/614 (32.4%) patients in the convalescent plasma arm and 86/307 (28.0%) patients in the standard of care arm-relative risk (RR) = 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.43, P = 0.18). Patients in the convalescent plasma arm had more serious adverse events (33.4% versus 26.4%; RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.57, P = 0.034). The antibody content significantly modulated the therapeutic effect of convalescent plasma. In multivariate analysis, each standardized log increase in neutralization or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity independently reduced the potential harmful effect of plasma (odds ratio (OR) = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.95 and OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.87, respectively), whereas IgG against the full transmembrane spike protein increased it (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.14-2.05). Convalescent plasma did not reduce the risk of intubation or death at 30 d in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Transfusion of convalescent plasma with unfavorable antibody profiles could be associated with worse clinical outcomes compared to standard care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
17.
Nature reviews. Immunology ; : 1-3, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1472925

ABSTRACT

Adenoviral vector vaccines are effective against SARS-CoV-2 but have been associated with a rare side effect termed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Here, we discuss our understanding of how vaccine-induced antibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4) form immune complexes that activate platelets and trigger the thrombotic events seen in VITT. Here, John Kelton and colleagues provide an overview of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), a very rare complication that has been observed following vaccination with adenoviral vector-based COVID-19 vaccines.

18.
BMJ ; 374: n2231, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiviral antibody therapies and blood products for the treatment of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis, with pairwise meta-analysis for outcomes with insufficient data. DATA SOURCES: WHO covid-19 database, a comprehensive multilingual source of global covid-19 literature, and six Chinese databases (up to 21 July 2021). STUDY SELECTION: Trials randomising people with suspected, probable, or confirmed covid-19 to antiviral antibody therapies, blood products, or standard care or placebo. Paired reviewers determined eligibility of trials independently and in duplicate. METHODS: After duplicate data abstraction, we performed random effects bayesian meta-analysis, including network meta-analysis for outcomes with sufficient data. We assessed risk of bias using a modification of the Cochrane risk of bias 2.0 tool. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) approach. We meta-analysed interventions with ≥100 patients randomised or ≥20 events per treatment arm. RESULTS: As of 21 July 2021, we identified 47 trials evaluating convalescent plasma (21 trials), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (5 trials), umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (5 trials), bamlanivimab (4 trials), casirivimab-imdevimab (4 trials), bamlanivimab-etesevimab (2 trials), control plasma (2 trials), peripheral blood non-haematopoietic enriched stem cells (2 trials), sotrovimab (1 trial), anti-SARS-CoV-2 IVIg (1 trial), therapeutic plasma exchange (1 trial), XAV-19 polyclonal antibody (1 trial), CT-P59 monoclonal antibody (1 trial) and INM005 polyclonal antibody (1 trial) for the treatment of covid-19. Patients with non-severe disease randomised to antiviral monoclonal antibodies had lower risk of hospitalisation than those who received placebo: casirivimab-imdevimab (odds ratio (OR) 0.29 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.47); risk difference (RD) -4.2%; moderate certainty), bamlanivimab (OR 0.24 (0.06 to 0.86); RD -4.1%; low certainty), bamlanivimab-etesevimab (OR 0.31 (0.11 to 0.81); RD -3.8%; low certainty), and sotrovimab (OR 0.17 (0.04 to 0.57); RD -4.8%; low certainty). They did not have an important impact on any other outcome. There was no notable difference between monoclonal antibodies. No other intervention had any meaningful effect on any outcome in patients with non-severe covid-19. No intervention, including antiviral antibodies, had an important impact on any outcome in patients with severe or critical covid-19, except casirivimab-imdevimab, which may reduce mortality in patients who are seronegative. CONCLUSION: In patients with non-severe covid-19, casirivimab-imdevimab probably reduces hospitalisation; bamlanivimab-etesevimab, bamlanivimab, and sotrovimab may reduce hospitalisation. Convalescent plasma, IVIg, and other antibody and cellular interventions may not confer any meaningful benefit. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This review was not registered. The protocol established a priori is included as a data supplement. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant CIHR- IRSC:0579001321). READERS' NOTE: This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Interim updates and additional study data will be posted on our website (www.covid19lnma.com).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Network Meta-Analysis , Treatment Outcome
19.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 2012-2024, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402107

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of convalescent plasma for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. Although most randomized controlled trials have shown negative results, uncontrolled studies have suggested that the antibody content could influence patient outcomes. We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma for adults with COVID-19 receiving oxygen within 12 d of respiratory symptom onset ( NCT04348656 ). Patients were allocated 2:1 to 500 ml of convalescent plasma or standard of care. The composite primary outcome was intubation or death by 30 d. Exploratory analyses of the effect of convalescent plasma antibodies on the primary outcome was assessed by logistic regression. The trial was terminated at 78% of planned enrollment after meeting stopping criteria for futility. In total, 940 patients were randomized, and 921 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Intubation or death occurred in 199/614 (32.4%) patients in the convalescent plasma arm and 86/307 (28.0%) patients in the standard of care arm-relative risk (RR) = 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.43, P = 0.18). Patients in the convalescent plasma arm had more serious adverse events (33.4% versus 26.4%; RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.57, P = 0.034). The antibody content significantly modulated the therapeutic effect of convalescent plasma. In multivariate analysis, each standardized log increase in neutralization or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity independently reduced the potential harmful effect of plasma (odds ratio (OR) = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.95 and OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.87, respectively), whereas IgG against the full transmembrane spike protein increased it (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.14-2.05). Convalescent plasma did not reduce the risk of intubation or death at 30 d in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Transfusion of convalescent plasma with unfavorable antibody profiles could be associated with worse clinical outcomes compared to standard care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
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