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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac161, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831310

ABSTRACT

In a low-income cohort in the Southeastern United States, 5% of participants avoided emergency medical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, primarily due to fear and visitor restrictions. Younger age, self-perceived lower health status, lack of a personal doctor, and decreased income were associated with greater likelihood of deferring emergency care.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): 1703-1706, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501055

ABSTRACT

In ecologic analyses of US states, piecewise multivariable models showed lower case-rate slopes after implementation of mask requirements: -1.0% (95% confidence interval, -1.34% to -.57%) and -0.44% (-.86% to -.03%) per 100 000 per day in early- and late-adopter states, respectively, compared with never-adopter states. Our findings support statewide mask requirements to mitigate transmission of coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Masks , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
3.
J Public Health Res ; 11(1)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widespread disruptions of medical care to mitigate COVID-19 spread and reduce burden on healthcare systems may have deleterious public health consequences. DESIGN AND METHODS: To examine factors contributing to healthcare interruptions during the pandemic, we conducted a COVID-19 impact survey between 10/7-12/14/2020 among participants of the Southern Community Cohort Study, which primarily enrolled low-income individuals in 12 southeastern states from 2002-2009. COVID survey data were combined with baseline and follow-up data. RESULTS: Among 4,463 respondents, 40% reported having missed/delayed a health appointment during the pandemic; the common reason was provider-initiated cancellation or delay (63%). In a multivariable model, female sex was the strongest independent predictor of interrupted care, with odds ratio (OR) 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-1.89). Those with higher education (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.05-1.54 for college graduate vs ≤high school) and household income (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.16-1.86 for >$50,000 vs <$15,000) were at significantly increased odds of missing healthcare.  Having greater perceived risk for acquiring (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72) or dying from COVID-19 (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51) also significantly increased odds of missed/delayed healthcare. Age was inversely associated with missed healthcare among men (OR for 5-year increase in age 0.88; 95% CI 0.80-0.96) but not women (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.91-1.04; p-interaction=0.04). Neither race/ethnicity nor comorbidities were associated with interrupted healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: Disruptions to healthcare disproportionately affected women and were primarily driven by health system-initiated deferrals and individual perceptions of COVID-19 risk, rather than medical co-morbidities or other traditional barriers to healthcare access.

5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0032721, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361971

ABSTRACT

In the absence of genome sequencing, two positive molecular tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) separated by negative tests, prolonged time, and symptom resolution remain the best surrogate measure of possible reinfection. Using a large electronic health record database, we characterized clinical and testing data for 23 patients with repeatedly positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results ≥60 days apart, separated by ≥2 consecutive negative test results. The prevalence of chronic medical conditions, symptoms, and severe outcomes related to coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) illness were ascertained. The median age of patients was 64.5 years, 40% were Black, and 39% were female. A total of 83% smoked within the prior year, 61% were overweight/obese, 83% had immunocompromising conditions, and 96% had ≥2 comorbidities. The median interval between the two positive tests was 77 days. Among the 19 patients with 60 to 89 days between positive tests, 17 (89%) exhibited symptoms or clinical manifestations consistent with COVID-19 at the time of the second positive test and 14 (74%) were hospitalized at the second positive test. Of the four patients with ≥90 days between two positive tests (patient 2 [PT2], PT8, PT14, and PT19), two had mild or no symptoms at the second positive test and one, an immunocompromised patient, had a brief hospitalization at the first diagnosis, followed by intensive care unit (ICU) admission at the second diagnosis 3 months later. Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of compromised immune systems, comorbidities, obesity, and smoking among patients with repeatedly positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. Despite limitations, including a lack of semiquantitative estimates of viral load, these data may help prioritize suspected cases of reinfection for investigation and continued surveillance. IMPORTANCE The comprehensive characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing and clinical data for patients with repeatedly positive SARS-CoV-2 tests can help prioritize suspected cases of reinfection for investigation in the absence of genome sequencing data and for continued surveillance of the potential long-term health consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Immune System , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Smoking , Viral Load
7.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 84(5): e13339, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960758

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 is affecting populations and healthcare systems worldwide. As we gain experience managing COVID-19, more data become available on disease severity, course, and treatment in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, data in pregnancy remain limited. This narrative review of COVID-19 during pregnancy underscores key knowledge gaps in our understanding of the impact of this viral infection on reproductive health. Current data suggest that pregnant people have similar disease course and outcomes compared to nonpregnant people, with the majority experiencing mild disease; however, pregnant people may have increased risk of hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Among patients who develop severe and critical disease, major maternal morbidity and mortality have been described including cardiomyopathy, mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death. Many questions remain regarding maternal severity of disease in COVID-19. Further research is needed to better understand disease course in pregnancy. Additionally, the inclusion of pregnant patients in therapeutic trials will provide vital data on treatment options for patients. As we continue to treat more patients affected by SARS-CoV-2, multidisciplinary care and continued research are both needed to achieve optimal outcomes for mother and fetus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , Risk , Severity of Illness Index
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