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1.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1489-1499, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to 11 months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. RESULTS: One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range, 11%-94%) of anti-Spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) remains, 31% (95% range, 9%-89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%-31%) of anti-nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months. This method was validated using data from a seroprevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection, which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
2.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103495, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children are underrepresented in the COVID-19 pandemic and often experience milder disease than adolescents and adults. Reduced severity is possibly due to recent and more frequent seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoV) infections. We assessed the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV specific antibodies in a large cohort in north-eastern France. METHODS: In this cross-sectional seroprevalence study, serum samples were collected from children and adults requiring hospital admission for non-COVID-19 between February and August 2020. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV (229E, HKU1, NL63, OC43) were assessed using a bead-based multiplex assay, Luciferase-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, and a pseudotype neutralisation assay. FINDINGS: In 2,408 individuals, seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies was 7-8% with three different immunoassays. Antibody levels to seasonal HCoV increased substantially up to the age of 10. Antibody responses in SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals were lowest in adults 18-30 years. In SARS-CoV-2 seronegative individuals, we observed cross-reactivity between antibodies to the four HCoV and SARS-CoV-2 Spike. In contrast to other antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, specific antibodies to sub-unit 2 of Spike (S2) in seronegative samples were highest in children. Upon infection with SARS-CoV-2, antibody levels to Spike of betacoronavirus OC43 increased across the whole age spectrum. No SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals with low levels of antibodies to seasonal HCoV were observed. INTERPRETATION: Our findings underline significant cross-reactivity between antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV, but provide no significant evidence for cross-protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to a recent seasonal HCoV infection. In particular, across all age groups we did not observe SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals with low levels of antibodies to seasonal HCoV. FUNDING: This work was supported by the « URGENCE COVID-19 ¼ fundraising campaign of Institut Pasteur, by the French Government's Investissement d'Avenir program, Laboratoire d'Excellence Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Grant No. ANR-10-LABX-62-IBEID), and by the REACTing (Research & Action Emerging Infectious Diseases), and by the RECOVER project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 101003589, and by a grant from LabEx IBEID (ANR-10-LABX-62-IBEID).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cross Reactions/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seasons , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1489-1499, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to 11 months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. RESULTS: One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range, 11%-94%) of anti-Spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) remains, 31% (95% range, 9%-89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%-31%) of anti-nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months. This method was validated using data from a seroprevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection, which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
4.
Euro Surveill ; 26(15)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190261

ABSTRACT

BackgroundChildren's role in SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology remains unclear. We investigated an initially unnoticed SARS-CoV-2 outbreak linked to schools in northern France, beginning as early as mid-January 2020.AimsThis retrospective observational study documents the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, linked to an affected high school (n = 664 participants) and primary schools (n = 1,340 study participants), in the context of unsuspected SARS-CoV-2 circulation and limited control measures.MethodsBetween 30 March and 30 April 2020, all school staff, as well as pupils and their parents and relatives were invited for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing and to complete a questionnaire covering symptom history since 13 January 2020.ResultsIn the high school, infection attack rates were 38.1% (91/239), 43.4% (23/53), and 59.3% (16/27), in pupils, teachers, and non-teaching staff respectively vs 10.1% (23/228) and 12.0% (14/117) in the pupils' parents and relatives (p < 0.001). Among the six primary schools, three children attending separate schools at the outbreak start, while symptomatic, might have introduced SARS-CoV-2 there, but symptomatic secondary cases related to them could not be definitely identified. In the primary schools overall, antibody prevalence in pupils sharing classes with symptomatic cases was higher than in pupils from other classes: 15/65 (23.1%) vs 30/445 (6.7%) (p < 0.001). Among 46 SARS-CoV-2 seropositive pupils < 12 years old, 20 were asymptomatic. Whether past HKU1 and OC43 seasonal coronavirus infection protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection in 6-11 year olds could not be inferred.ConclusionsViral circulation can occur in high and primary schools so keeping them open requires consideration of appropriate control measures and enhanced surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Cohort Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
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