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1.
JAAPA ; 35(1): 53-57, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584037

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The rapid spread of COVID-19 brought forth a rapid increase in hospitalization rates, requiring changes in hospital use and medical personnel structure. Physician assistants (PAs) and NPs in pediatric critical care were cross-trained and redeployed to our pediatric biocontainment unit to address the clinician strain in providing high-quality patient care during these unprecedented times. This manuscript discusses the effectiveness of using these clinicians while recognizing the challenges of managing a novel virus in a new unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurse Practitioners , Physician Assistants , Child , Critical Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(3): 373-377, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109260

ABSTRACT

We describe the clinical course of 57 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cared for through a single hospital system. Most children were mildly symptomatic, and only a few patients with underlying medical conditions required hospitalization. Systemwide patient evaluation processes allowed for prompt identification and management of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Crit Care Med ; 49(3): e219-e234, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic continues to affect millions worldwide. Given the rapidly growing evidence base, we implemented a living guideline model to provide guidance on the management of patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. METHODS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Disease 2019 panel has expanded to include 43 experts from 14 countries; all panel members completed an electronic conflict-of-interest disclosure form. In this update, the panel addressed nine questions relevant to managing severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. We used the World Health Organization's definition of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019. The systematic reviews team searched the literature for relevant evidence, aiming to identify systematic reviews and clinical trials. When appropriate, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis to summarize treatment effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, then used the evidence-to-decision framework to generate recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel issued nine statements (three new and six updated) related to ICU patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019. For severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019, the panel strongly recommends using systemic corticosteroids and venous thromboprophylaxis but strongly recommends against using hydroxychloroquine. In addition, the panel suggests using dexamethasone (compared with other corticosteroids) and suggests against using convalescent plasma and therapeutic anticoagulation outside clinical trials. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel suggests using remdesivir in nonventilated patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and suggests against starting remdesivir in patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 outside clinical trials. Because of insufficient evidence, the panel did not issue a recommendation on the use of awake prone positioning. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel issued several recommendations to guide healthcare professionals caring for adults with critical or severe coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. Based on a living guideline model the recommendations will be updated as new evidence becomes available.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Disease Management , Intensive Care Units , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants , Evidence-Based Medicine , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunization, Passive , Patient Positioning , Ventilation
5.
Pediatrics ; 147(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059364

ABSTRACT

A 16-year-old white boy with a history of chronic lung disease of prematurity, cough-variant asthma, and incidental lung nodules presented to the emergency center in spring 2020 with acute onset dry cough, shortness of breath, and fever. An initial history, gathered from his mother because of the patient's respiratory distress, revealed no recent travel. However, his mother is a health care worker at a hospital, and sick contacts included ongoing contact with a friend with cold-like symptoms. He had a variety of animals at home, including a dog, cats, fish, rodents, and reptiles. He had a history of vaping tobacco products >6 months ago. Fever and respiratory symptoms were associated with fatigue, chest tightness, abdominal pain, and myalgias. On examination, he was ill appearing and had tachycardia, tachypnea, borderline hypoxia with an oxygen saturation of 91% on room air, diminished breath sounds at the lung bases, and unremarkable abdominal examination results. A chest radiograph was consistent with the lung examination, revealing bilateral lower lobe hazy infiltrates. He showed initial improvement for 48 hours with antibiotics, intravenous fluid resuscitation, oxygen via nasal cannula, albuterol, and prednisone. Subsequently, he worsened with persistent high fever, increasing respiratory distress with pulmonary findings, and severe persistent epigastric pain, which added a layer of diagnostic complexity. As this patient's clinical course evolved and further history became available, pulmonary medicine and infectious diseases services were consulted to guide diagnostic evaluation and treatment of this patient early in the era of coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Cough/diagnostic imaging , Fever/diagnostic imaging , Vaping/adverse effects , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/genetics , Cough/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Vaping/pathology
6.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(3): 175-178, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought new challenges to pediatric transport programs. The aims of this study were to describe the transport of pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19 and to review the operational challenges that our transport system encountered. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was performed to review all COVID-19 pediatric transport performed over a 6-month period during the initial pandemic surge in 2020. Pediatric patients with a known positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test at the time of transport were included. Patients' hospital records, including their transport record, were reviewed for demographics, diagnoses, transport interventions and complications, and admission disposition. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patient cohort. RESULTS: Of the 883 transports performed between April and October 2020, 146 (16%) tested positive for COVID-19 during the initial surge in our geographical area. Patient acuity was diverse with 40% of children having a chronic complex medical condition. More than 25% of children required aerosol-generating procedures during transport. The most common medical diagnosis was respiratory compromise, and the most common surgical diagnosis was appendicitis. No adverse events occurred during transports, and no transport team members contracted COVID-19 because of workplace exposure. Transport program operational challenges ranged from rapidly changing system logistics/policies to educational and utilization of proper personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Children with COVID-19 can be transported safely with adaption of transport program procedures. Change management and team stress should be anticipated and can be addressed with repeated education and messaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Transportation of Patients/standards , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(5): 593-598, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An understanding of the clinical characteristics of children with coronavirus disease 2019 in diverse communities is needed to optimize the response of healthcare providers during this pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all children presenting to the Texas Children's Hospital system with testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from March 10, 2020, through June 28, 2020. Demographics were recorded for all patients undergoing testing and clinical characteristics and outcomes were recorded for children with positive tests. RESULTS: Of 16 554 unique patients ≤ 21 years of age who were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 1215 (7.3%) patients tested positive. Infants under 1 year of age and patients aged 18-21 years had the highest percent of positive tests at 9.9% (230/2329) and 10.7% (79/739), respectively. Hispanic children accounted for 66% (802/1215) of positive tests, though they only represented 42.1% (6972/16 554) of all children tested for SARS-CoV-2. Of the 1215 children with a positive test, 55.7% had fever, 40.9% had cough, 39.8% had congestion or rhinorrhea, 21.9% had gastrointestinal complaints, and 15.9% were asymptomatic. Only 97 (8%) patients were hospitalized (of which 68% were Hispanic). Most of the hospitalized patients had underlying medical conditions (62/97, 63.9%), including obesity. Thirty-one hospitalized patients (31/97, 32%) required respiratory support and 9 patients (9/97, 9.3%) received SARS-CoV-2 antiviral therapy. Two patients died. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high percentage of Hispanic children tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were hospitalized. Most of the children with detection of SARS-CoV-2 had uncomplicated illness courses; some children were critically ill; and 2 patients died.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(2): e85-e86, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915932

ABSTRACT

We report an infant with COVID-19 who presented with bloody stools, lethargy and imaging findings significant for pneumatosis intestinalis. The infant was treated with conservative therapy, including resuscitation, bowel rest and intravenous antibiotics, successfully avoiding surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/complications , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Colon/diagnostic imaging , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/physiopathology , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/therapy , Feces , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Intensive Care Units/standards , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/therapy
10.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(5): 854-887, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which 4 are best practice statements, 9 are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for 6 questions. The topics were: (1) infection control, (2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, (3) hemodynamic support, (4) ventilatory support, and (5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new recommendations in further releases of these guidelines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/standards , Intensive Care Units/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Sepsis/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/etiology , Survivors
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