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1.
Respir Care ; 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066913

ABSTRACT

Background: Many studies of novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) are constructed to report hospitalization outcomes, with few large multi-center population-based reports on the time course of intra-hospitalization characteristics, including daily oxygenation support requirements. Comprehensive epidemiologic profiles of oxygenation methods used by day and by week during hospitalization across all severities are important to illustrate the clinical and economic burden of COVID-19 hospitalizations.Methods: This is a retrospective, multicenter observational cohort study of 15,361 consecutive hospitalizations of patients with COVID-19 at 25 adult acute care hospitals in Texas participating in the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) COVID-19 registryResults: At initial hospitalization, the majority required nasal cannula (44.0%) with increasing proportion of invasive mechanical ventilation in the first week and particularly the weeks to follow. After four weeks of acute illness, 69.9% of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 required intermediate (e.g., high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive ventilation) or advanced respiratory support (e.g., invasive mechanical ventilation), with similar proportions extending to hospitalizations lasting 6 weeks or longer.Conclusions: Data representation of intra-hospital processes of care drawn from hospitals with varied size, teaching and trauma designations is important to presenting a balanced perspective of care delivery mechanisms employed, such as daily oxygen method utilization.

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Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 35(4): 468-475, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873712

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, China witnessed the emergence of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Its ability to spread quickly made it a global pandemic. The United States has been greatly affected, with more than 980,000 lives lost so far. Diagnosis is made primarily through nasopharyngeal swab for polymerase chain reaction. Point-of-care testing by antigen is less sensitive and specific and may require polymerase chain reaction confirmation. Management of the COVID-19 patient remains largely supportive. Steroids are now a therapy mainstay if the patient is hypoxic. Direct antivirals, such as nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, remdesivir, or molnupirivir, can be used if certain criteria are met. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted primarily by inhalation of large droplets, though transmission by aerosolization may occur, particularly via certain procedures. In the hospital setting, use of personal protective equipment for the care of COVID-19 patients has largely remained the same, with full use of gowns, gloves, respirators, and eye protection. Inadequate supply at the start of the pandemic required innovative ways to reprocess and extend the use of personal protective equipment. Three vaccines are now available in the US, all with excellent efficacy against severe disease and hospitalization, though booster doses are needed to bolster waning antibody levels. The possibility of emerging variants continues to remain a threat to control of the pandemic. The leader of the World Health Organization, Dr. Tedros, has stated, "The pandemic will not be over anywhere until it's over everywhere."

4.
Critical care explorations ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1738096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The multifaceted long-term impairments resulting from critical illness and COVID-19 require interdisciplinary management approaches in the recovery phase of illness. Operational insights into the structure and process of recovery clinics (RCs) from heterogeneous health systems are needed. This study describes the structure and process characteristics of existing and newly implemented ICU-RCs and COVID-RCs in a subset of large health systems in the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Thirty-nine RCs, representing a combined 156 hospitals within 29 health systems participated. PATIENTS: None. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: RC demographics, referral criteria, and operating characteristics were collected, including measures used to assess physical, psychologic, and cognitive recoveries. Thirty-nine RC surveys were completed (94% response rate). ICU-RC teams included physicians, pharmacists, social workers, physical therapists, and advanced practice providers. Funding sources for ICU-RCs included clinical billing (n = 20, 77%), volunteer staff support (n = 15, 58%), institutional staff/space support (n = 13, 46%), and grant or foundation funding (n = 3, 12%). Forty-six percent of RCs report patient visit durations of 1 hour or longer. ICU-RC teams reported use of validated scales to assess psychologic recovery (93%), physical recovery (89%), and cognitive recovery (86%) more often in standard visits compared with COVID-RC teams (psychologic, 54%;physical, 69%;and cognitive, 46%). CONCLUSIONS: Operating structures of RCs vary, though almost all describe modest capacity and reliance on volunteerism and discretionary institutional support. ICU- and COVID-RCs in the United States employ varied funding sources and endorse different assessment measures during visits to guide care coordination. Common features include integration of ICU clinicians, interdisciplinary approach, and focus on severe critical illness. The heterogeneity in RC structures and processes contributes to future research on the optimal structure and process to achieve the best postintensive care syndrome and postacute sequelae of COVID outcomes.

5.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 937-944, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568160

ABSTRACT

As surges in the COVID-19 pandemic have continued worldwide, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has mutated, spawning several new variants, and impacting, to various degrees, transmission, disease severity, diagnostics, therapeutics, and natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Baylor Scott & White Health has implemented, along with laboratory diagnosis, SARS-CoV-2 sequencing to identify variants in its geographical service area. We analyzed virus sequencing results of specimens collected across Central Texas and found dramatic changes in variant distribution in the first half of 2021. The alpha variant (B 1.1.7) became predominant at week 13 and continued dominance until week 25. A growth rate of 1.20 (R2 = 0.92) for the first 15 weeks was noted and this growth gradually declined to -0.55 (R2 = 0.99) for the final 13 weeks. Currently, B.1.1.7 is being displaced with B.1.617.2 at a 0.58 growth rate (R2 = 0.97). We also investigated vaccine breakthrough cases (VBCs) within our healthcare system and present clinical data on 28 symptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Texas/epidemiology
6.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 34(6): 645-648, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437743

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology and organ-specific sequelae following acute illness due to COVID-19 and prompting patients to seek COVID recovery care are not yet well characterized. This cross-sectional study reviewed data on 200 adult patients with prolonged symptoms of COVID-19 (>14 days after symptom onset) not resolved by usual primary care or specialist care who were referred for COVID-specific follow-up. Most patients sought COVID recovery clinic visits within the first 2 months of initial onset of symptoms (median 37 days), with some seeking care for sequelae persisting up to 10 months (median 82 days). At the time of telehealth evaluation, 13% of patients were using home oxygen, and 10% of patients had been unable to return to work due to persistent fatigue and/or subjective cognitive dysfunction ("brain fog"). The prominent specific symptom sequelae prompting patients to seek COVID-specific evaluation beyond usual primary care and specialist referrals were dyspnea, fatigue/weakness, and subjective cognitive dysfunction, irrespective of whether patients had required hospitalization or time since COVID-19 symptom onset.

7.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 395-399, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394716

ABSTRACT

Background: Adverse reactions, including anaphylaxis, to messenger RNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines rarely occur. Because of the need to administer a timely second dose in subjects who reported a reaction to their first dose, a panel of health-care professionals developed a safe triage of the employees and health care providers (EHCP) at a large health-care system to consider administration of future dosing. Methods: There were 28,544 EHCPs who received their first dose of COVID-19 vaccines between December 15, 2020, and March 8, 2021. The EHCPs self-reported adverse reactions to a centralized COVID-19 command center (CCC). The CCC screened and collected information on the quality of reaction, symptoms, and timing of the onset of the reaction. Results: Of 1253 calls to the CCC, 113 were identified as requiring consideration by a panel of three (American Board of Allergy and Immunology) ABAI-certified allergists for future dosing or formal in-person assessment. Of the 113 EHCPs, 94 (83.2%) were recommended to get their second dose. Eighty of 94 received their second planned dose without a severe or immediate reaction. Of the 14 of 113 identified as needing further evaluation, 6 were evaluated by a physician and subsequently received their second dose without a serious adverse reaction. Eight of 14 did not receive their second dose. Only 5 of the 113 EHCPs reported reactions (4.4%) were recommended to not take the second dose: 3 (2.6%) because of symptoms consistent with anaphylaxis, and 2 because of neurologic complications (seizure, stroke). Conclusion: The panel demonstrated that, by consideration of reaction history alone, the ECHPs could be appropriately triaged to receive scheduled second dosing of COVID-19 vaccines without delays for in-person evaluation and allergy testing.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Triage/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health Services/methods , Occupational Health Services/standards , Quality Improvement , Retrospective Studies , Self Report , Triage/standards , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
8.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2130-2138, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935106

ABSTRACT

Rapid diagnosis and isolation are key to containing the quick spread of a pandemic agent like severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has spread globally since its initial outbreak in Wuhan province in China. SARS-CoV-2 is novel and the effect on typically prevalent seasonal viruses is just becoming apparent. We present our initial data on the prevalence of respiratory viruses in the month of March 2020. This is a retrospective cohort study post launching of SARS-CoV-2 testing at Baylor Scott and White Hospital (BSWH), Temple, Texas. Testing for SARS-CoV-2 was performed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and results were shared with State public health officials for immediate interventions. More than 3500 tests were performed during the first 2 weeks of testing for SARS-CoV-2 and identified 168 (4.7%) positive patients. Sixty-two (3.2%) of the 1912 ambulatory patients and 106 (6.3%) of the 1659 emergency department/inpatients tested were positive. The highest rate of infection (6.9%) was seen in patients aged 25 to 34 years, while the lowest rate of infection was seen among patients aged <25 years old (2%). County-specific patient demographic information was shared with respective public health departments for epidemiological interventions. Incidentally, this study showed that there was a significant decrease in the occurrence of seasonal respiratory virus infections, perhaps due to increased epidemiological awareness about SARS-CoV-2 among the general public, as well as the social distancing measures implemented in response to SARS-CoV-2. Data extracted for BSWH from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System site revealed that Influenza incidence was 8.7% in March 2020, compared with 25% in March 2019. This study was intended to provide an initial experience of dealing with a pandemic and the role of laboratories in crisis management. This study provided SARS-CoV-2 testing data from ambulatory and inpatient population. Epidemiological interventions depend on timely availability of accurate diagnostic tests and throughput capacity of such systems during large outbreaks like SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Texas/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240076, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835957

ABSTRACT

Public health emergency of SARS-CoV-2 has facilitated diagnostic testing as a related medical countermeasure against COVID-19 outbreak. Numerous serologic antibody tests have become available through an expedited federal emergency use only process. This paper highlights the analytical characteristic of an ELISA based assay by AnshLabs and three random access immunoassay (RAIA) by DiaSorin, Roche, and Abbott that have been approved for emergency use authorization (EUA), at a tertiary academic center in a low disease-prevalence area. The AnshLabs gave higher estimates of sero-prevalence, over the three RAIA methods. For positive results, AnshLabs had 93.3% and 100% agreement with DiaSorin or Abbott and Roche respectively. For negative results, AnshLabs had 74.3% and 78.3% agreement with DiaSorin and Roche or Abbott respectively. All discrepant samples that were positive by AnshLabs and negative by RAIA tested positive by all-in-one step SARS-CoV-2 Total (COV2T) assay performed on the automated Siemens Advia Centaur XPT analyzer. None of these methods, however, are useful in early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 33(4): 696-698, 2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759744

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has required creative and agile teamwork and leadership. Creativity was especially necessary when employing the social distancing requirements for this disease. To ensure compliance while also meeting the needs of our system and community, a huge telemedicine initiative was deployed. Administrative leadership utilized ad hoc teams to overcome challenges and ensured success with a shared vision, clarity, communication, and a positive culture. This article outlines how the team was developed, what challenges the team faced, and how they were successful in the unchartered waters of a COVID-19 response. Finally, best practices are shared for inconsistent teams in an inconsistent setting, ensuring success within an ad hoc team residing in a fluid environment.

11.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 33(2): 209-212, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (CoV) epidemic that began in China in December 2019 follows earlier epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV in China and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV in Saudi Arabia. The full genome of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has now been shared, and data have been gathered from several case series. As of February 11, 2020, there have been 45,182 laboratory-confirmed cases, the vast majority in China, with 1115 deaths, for an overall case-fatality rate of 2.5%. Cases have been confirmed in 27 countries. On average, each patient infects 2.2 other people. Symptomatic infection appears to predominantly affect adults, with a 5-day estimated incubation period between infection and symptom onset. The most common presenting symptoms are fever, cough, dyspnea, and myalgias and/or fatigue. All cases reported to date have shown radiographic evidence of pneumonia. 2019-nCoV is diagnosed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Treatment is largely supportive, with regimens including antiviral therapy. Corticosteroids are not routinely recommended. Hand hygiene, prompt identification and isolation of suspect patients, and appropriate use of personal protective equipment are the most reliable methods to contain the epidemic.

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