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Medical Immunology (Russia) ; 24(5):903-910, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2227677


To date, there is no consensus explaining the relationship between varying concentrations of IFNgamma and the severity of infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this article was to analyze and formulate conclusions from the selected studies and publications, which, in sum, provide a potentially reasonable view on the role of IFNgamma in COVID-19 pathogenesis. This article highlights current data on the immunological role of IFNgamma which affects differentiation of naive T helper cells, acting as a polarizing factor. It activates the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II, by increasing the expression of MHC I/II subunits, inhibiting replication of the viral particles by initiating activation of interferon-stimulated genes followed by subsequent synthesis of antiviral proteins. Moreover, IFNgamma activates the production of cytokines by T cells, enhancing cytotoxic activity of the T killers. IFNgamma exerts immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory effects via STAT1, SOCS1 and PIAS genes, thus regulating activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. A number of studies were considered where the patterns of changes in serum IFNgamma concentration were examined in viral infections and SARS-CoV-2. We performed a systemic analysis of the results of studies that showed a relationship between high concentrations of IFNgamma and COVID-19 severity. In a number of studies, the significantly high levels of IFNgamma in COVID-19 patients were often associated with a poor outcome of the disease. The median values of the IFNgamma concentration in severe COVID-19 were found to be significantly higher compared to the results obtained in the cases of moderate severity. It shows an increase, in parallel with viral load in the nasopharyngeal samples upon worsening of the clinical condition. Based on the data on the decreased IFNgamma concentrations in convalescent patients, the mechanism of antagonism between IFNgamma and IL-4 is considered, where the decreases serum concentrations of IFNgamma along with increasing level of IL-4 may be an indirect proof of normal adaptive immune response with subsequent development of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and gradual elimination of the virus from the body. Moreover, the evidence is discussed that the patients harboring some parasitic infections (Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica) with persistently elevated level of IFNgamma are at reduced risk for severe course of COVID-19. Copyright © 2022, SPb RAACI.

Medical Immunology (Russia) ; 24(5):903-910, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2226331
31st International Conference on Computer Graphics and Vision, GraphiCon 2021 ; 3027:259-267, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1589844