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1.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047394

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited evidence for therapeutic options for pediatric COVID-19 outside of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Objective: To determine whether the use of steroids within 2 days of admission for non-MIS-C COVID-19 in children is associated with hospital length of stay (LOS). The secondary objective was to determine their association with intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, inflammation, and fever defervescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data retrospectively for children (<18 years) who required hospitalization for non-MIS-C COVID-19. Data from March 2020 through September 2021 were provided by 58 hospitals in 7 countries who participate in the Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) COVID-19 registry. Exposure: Administration of steroids within 2 days of admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Length of stay in the hospital and ICU. Adjustment for confounders was done by mixed linear regression and propensity score matching. Results: A total of 1163 patients met inclusion criteria and had a median (IQR) age of 7 years (0.9-14.3). Almost half of all patients (601/1163, 51.7%) were male, 33.8% (392/1163) were non-Hispanic White, and 27.9% (324/1163) were Hispanic. Of the study population, 184 patients (15.8%) received steroids within 2 days of admission, and 979 (84.2%) did not receive steroids within the first 2 days. Among 1163 patients, 658 (56.5%) required respiratory support during hospitalization. Overall, patients in the steroids group were older and had greater severity of illness, and a larger proportion required respiratory and vasoactive support. On multivariable linear regression, after controlling for treatment with remdesivir within 2 days, country, race and ethnicity, obesity and comorbidity, number of abnormal inflammatory mediators, age, bacterial or viral coinfection, and disease severity according to ICU admission within first 2 days or World Health Organization ordinal scale of 4 or higher on admission, with a random intercept for the site, early steroid treatment was not significantly associated with hospital LOS (exponentiated coefficient, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81-1.09; P = .42). Separate analyses for patients with an LOS of 2 days or longer (n = 729), those receiving respiratory support at admission (n = 286), and propensity score-matched patients also showed no significant association between steroids and LOS. Early steroid treatment was not associated with ICU LOS, fever defervescence by day 3, or normalization of inflammatory mediators. Conclusions and Relevance: Steroid treatment within 2 days of hospital admission in a heterogeneous cohort of pediatric patients hospitalized for COVID-19 without MIS-C did not have a statistically significant association with hospital LOS.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
3.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(11): e297-e316, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282336

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of obesity on disease severity and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among hospitalized children. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study from the Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry included all children hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 2020 to January 2021. Obesity was defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention BMI or World Health Organization weight for length criteria. Critical illness definition was adapted from National Institutes of Health criteria of critical COVID. Multivariate mixed logistic and linear regression was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratio of critical illness and the adjusted impact of obesity on hospital length of stay. RESULTS: Data from 795 patients (96.4% United States) from 45 sites were analyzed, including 251 (31.5%) with obesity and 544 (68.5%) without. A higher proportion of patients with obesity were adolescents, of Hispanic ethnicity, and had other comorbidities. Those with obesity were also more likely to be diagnosed with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (35.7% vs 28.1%, P = .04) and had higher ICU admission rates (57% vs 44%, P < .01) with more critical illness (30.3% vs 18.3%, P < .01). Obesity had more impact on acute COVID-19 severity than on multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children presentation. The adjusted odds ratio for critical illness with obesity was 3.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.8-5.3). Patients with obesity had longer adjusted length of stay (exponentiated parameter estimate 1.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.5) compared with patients without obesity but did not have increased mortality risk due to COVID-19 (2.4% vs 1.5%, P = .38). CONCLUSION: In a large, multicenter cohort, a high proportion of hospitalized children from COVID-19 had obesity as comorbidity. Furthermore, obesity had a significant independent association with critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology
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