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1.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725524

ABSTRACT

Among the first clinical symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection is olfactory-gustatory deficit; this continues for weeks and, in some cases, can be persistent. We prospectively evaluated 162 patients affected by COVID-19 using a visual analogue scale (VAS) for nasal and olfactory-gustatory symptoms. Patients were checked after 7, 14, 21, 28, 90, and 180 days. A total of 118 patients (72.8%) reported an olfactory VAS < 7 at baseline (group B), and 44 (27.2%) reported anosmia (VAS ≥ 7) (group A) and underwent the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) and Burghart Taste Strips (BTS) to quantify the deficit objectively and repeated the tests to confirm the sense recovery. Group A patients showed B-SIT anosmia and hyposmia in 44.2% and 55.8% of cases, respectively. A total of 88.6% of group A patients reported ageusia with VAS ≥ 7, and BTS confirmed 81.8% of ageusia and 18.2% of hypogeusia. VAS smell recovery was recorded starting from 14 days, with normalization at 28 days. The 28-day B-SIT score showed normosmia in 90.6% of group A patients. The mean time for full recovery (VAS = 0) was shorter in group B (22.9 days) than in group A (31.9 days). Chemosensory deficit is frequently the first symptom in patients with COVID-19, and, in most cases, recovery occurs after four weeks.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste
2.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(1): 790, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359309

ABSTRACT

Curcumin [1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione], the main component of turmeric (Curcuma longa, a flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae), is known to possess different pharmacological activities, particularly anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Since an underlying inflammatory process exists in several ocular conditions, such as anterior uveitis, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR), the aim of the present review was to summarize the pleiotropic effects exerted by this molecule, focusing in particular on its beneficial role in retinal diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin has also been described in numerous systemic inflammatory pathologies and tumors. Specifically, the biological, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties of curcumin are associated with its ability to downregulate the expression of the following genes: IκBα, cyclooxygenase 2, prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α. According to this finding, curcumin may be useful in the treatment of some retinal disorders. In DR, proliferative vitreoretinopathy and AMD, beneficial effects have been observed following treatment with curcumin, including slowing down of the inflammatory process. Despite the aforementioned evidence, the main disadvantage of this substance is that it possesses a low solubility, as well as poor oral bioavailability due to its reduced absorption, rapid metabolism and rapid elimination. Therefore, several curcumin analogues have been synthesized and tested over the years, in order to improve the possible obtainable therapeutic effects. The purpose of the present review was to identify new aspects that could guide future research on this important traditional medicine, which is a well-tolerated natural product, and is widely considered safe and economical.

3.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308299

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, the medical-scientific community has been facing a terrible pandemic caused by a new airborne viral agent known as SARS-CoV2. Already in the early stages of the pandemic, following the discovery that the virus uses the ACE2 cell receptor as a molecular target to infect the cells of our body, it was hypothesized that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Since then, numerous studies have been published on the subject, but the exact role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still a matter of debate. RAAS represents an important protagonist in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, providing the virus with the receptor of entry into host cells and determining its organotropism. Furthermore, following infection, the virus is able to cause an increase in plasma ACE2 activity, compromising the normal function of the RAAS. This dysfunction could contribute to the establishment of the thrombo-inflammatory state characteristic of severe forms of COVID-19. Drugs targeting RAAS represent promising therapeutic options for COVID-19 sufferers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Discovery , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
4.
Rev Recent Clin Trials ; 16(3): 309-315, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167207

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first case of infection by SARS-CoV-2 (i.e., COVID-19) has been officially recorded by the Italian National Health Service on February 21st, 2020. Lombardy was the first Italian region to be affected by the pandemic. Subsequently, the entire Northern part of Italy recorded a high number of cases, while the South was hit following the migratory waves. On March 8th, the Italian Government has issued a decree that imposed a total lockdown, defining it as a state of isolation and restricting access in Lombardy and the other 14 provinces of Northern Italy. METHODS: We analyzed the virus trend in the period between February 24th and September 8th, 2020, focusing on Calabria, with regards to the following items: new positives, change of total positives, and total cases. Furthermore, we included other information, such as the incubation period, symptom resolution period, quarantine period. RESULTS: On March 27th, the epidemic curve spiked with 101 new positive cases validating the hypothesis that this abnormal event was related to the displacement of non-residents people, living in the Northern part of Italy, to the home regions in the South. The epidemic curve showed a decreasing trend in the period after lockdown, proving the effectiveness of this measure. From the end of the lockdown May 04th to September 8th, the registered trend was -94.51%. A negative growth rate indicates that the number of new positive cases is lower than the number of healed patients. CONCLUSION: This study describes the effectiveness of the Italian Government policy, particularly the role of lockdown, for the containment of SARS-CoV-2 contagion in Calabria, a region with a low SARS-CoV-2 infection rate within the registered period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055064

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease. Bilateral pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation are key features of severe COVID-19. Fibrinogen and D-dimer levels are typically increased. The risk for venous thromboembolism is markedly increased, especially in patients in the intensive care unit despite prophylactic dose anticoagulation. Pulmonary microvascular thrombosis has also been described and the risk for arterial thrombotic diseases also appears to be increased while bleeding is less common than thrombosis, but it can occur. Evaluation for venous thromboembolism may be challenging because symptoms of pulmonary embolism overlap with COVID-19, and imaging studies may not be feasible in all cases. The threshold for evaluation or diagnosis of thromboembolism should be low given the high frequency of these events. Management and treatment are new challenges due to the paucity of high-quality evidence regarding efficacy and safety of different approaches to prevent or treat thromboembolic complications of the disease. All inpatients should receive thromboprophylaxis unless contraindicated. Some institutional protocols provide more aggressive anticoagulation with intermediate or even therapeutic dose anticoagulation for COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. Therapeutic dose anticoagulation is always appropriate to treat deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, unless contraindicated. This article reviews evaluation and management of coagulation abnormalities in individuals with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Risk Management , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
6.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(10)2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-905833

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to assess thrombotic risk in CoViD-19/pneumonia patients with acute respiratory failure and to compare populations treated with three different antithrombotic prophylaxis protocols. The primary outcome is to analyze the prevalence of thrombotic events in hospitalized patients, while the secondary outcome is to analyze the correlation between different anticoagulation targets with thrombotic events. All patients referred to our hospital for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia between 18 and 31 May 2020 were included. Seventy-four patients were enrolled (44 men and 30 women, average age 68.6). Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism was made in 21 cases (28.4%) and thrombotic events were associated with positive pressure ventilation support (p = 0.024) and hospitalization in ICU (p < 0.0001). These patients presented higher levels of D-dimer (p < 0.0001) and their hospital length of stay was >16 days longer. Forty-seven out of 74 patients (63.5%) received intermediate or therapeutic dose of anticoagulation, while twenty-seven patients (34.5%) received standard antithrombotic prophylaxis. The analysis showed that an intermediate or therapeutic dose of anticoagulation did not decrease the prevalence of thrombotic events. On the other hand, six patients reported severe hemorrhagic complications. Despite intermediate or therapeutic-dose of anticoagulation, a high number of patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 developed thrombotic complications.

7.
Biology ; 9(10):310, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-792728

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to assess thrombotic risk in CoViD-19/pneumonia patients with acute respiratory failure and to compare populations treated with three different antithrombotic prophylaxis protocols. The primary outcome is to analyze the prevalence of thrombotic events in hospitalized patients, while the secondary outcome is to analyze the correlation between different anticoagulation targets with thrombotic events. All patients referred to our hospital for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia between 18 and 31 May 2020 were included. Seventy-four patients were enrolled (44 men and 30 women, average age 68.6). Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism was made in 21 cases (28.4%) and thrombotic events were associated with positive pressure ventilation support (p = 0.024) and hospitalization in ICU (p <0.0001). These patients presented higher levels of D-dimer (p <0.0001) and their hospital length of stay was >16 days longer. Forty-seven out of 74 patients (63.5%) received intermediate or therapeutic dose of anticoagulation, while twenty-seven patients (34.5%) received standard antithrombotic prophylaxis. The analysis showed that an intermediate or therapeutic dose of anticoagulation did not decrease the prevalence of thrombotic events. On the other hand, six patients reported severe hemorrhagic complications. Despite intermediate or therapeutic-dose of anticoagulation, a high number of patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 developed thrombotic complications.

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