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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 948-954, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851524

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Macrolide antibiotics have immunomodulatory properties which may be beneficial in viral infections. However, the precise effects of macrolides on T cell responses to COVID, differences between different macrolides, and synergistic effects with other antibiotics have not been explored. METHODS: We investigated the effect of antibiotics (amoxicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and combined amoxicillin with clarithromycin) on lymphocyte intracellular cytokine levels and monocyte phagocytosis in healthy volunteer PBMCs stimulated ex vivo with SARS-CoV-2 S1+2 spike protein. A retrospective cohort study was performed on intensive care COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Co-incubation of clarithromycin with spike protein-stimulated healthy volunteer PBMCs ex vivo resulted in an increase in CD8+ (p = 0.004) and CD4+ (p = 0.007) IL-2, with a decrease in CD8+ (p = 0.032) and CD4+ (p = 0.007) IL-10. The addition of amoxicillin to clarithromycin resulted in an increase in CD8+ IL-6 (p = 0.010), decrease in CD8+ (p = 0.014) and CD4+ (p = 0.022) TNF-alpha, and decrease in CD8+ IFN-alpha (p = 0.038). Amoxicillin alone had no effect on CD4+ or CD8+ cytokines. Co-incubation of azithromycin resulted in increased CD8+ (p = 0.007) and CD4+ (p = 0.011) IL-2. There were no effects on monocyte phagocytosis. 102 COVID-19 ICU patients received antibiotics on hospital admission; 62 (61%) received clarithromycin. Clarithromycin use was associated with reduction in mortality on univariate analysis (p = 0.023), but not following adjustment for confounders (HR = 0.540; p = 0.076). CONCLUSIONS: Clarithromycin has immunomodulatory properties over and above azithromycin. Amoxicillin in addition to clarithromycin is associated with synergistic ex vivo immunomodulatory properties. The potential benefit of clarithromycin in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and other viral pneumonitis merits further exploration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clarithromycin , Amoxicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Macrolides/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305830

ABSTRACT

Background: For a targeted therapeutic strategy to show outcome benefit, there needs to be a strong biological and pathogenic rationale to underpin and direct personalised treatments. Relevant biological disease features and biomarkers identify patients for the correct therapeutic, delivered at an appropriate time, dose and duration for maximal efficacy. We evaluated whether serum levels of a wide range of proposed therapeutic targets in COVID-19 discriminated between patients with mild and severe disease or death.Methods: A search of clinicaltrials.gov identified immunological drug targets in COVID-19. We subsequently conducted an observational study investigating the association of serum biomarkers relating to putative therapeutic biomarkers with illness severity and outcome.Results: A search of clinicaltrials.gov identified 477 randomized trials assessing immunomodulatory therapies, including 168 different therapies against 83 different pathways. We measured levels of ten cytokines/signalling proteins including those related to the most common therapeutic targets (GM-CSF, IFN-α2a, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, TNF-α), immunoglobulin G ( IgG) antibodies directed against either the COVID-19 spike protein (S1) or nucleocapsid protein (N), and neutralization titres of antibodies within the first 5 days of hospital admission in 86 patients, 44 (51%) with mild disease and 42 (49%) with severe disease. Six of the ten cytokine/signalling protein markers measured (IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, interferon- a, interferon- b, IL -1ra ) discriminated between patients with mild and severe disease, although most were similar or only modestly raised above that seen in healthy volunteers. A similar proportion of patients with mild or severe disease had detectable S1 or N IgG antibodies with equivalent levels between groups. Neutralization titres were higher among patients with severe disease.Interpretation: Some therapeutic and prognostic biomarkers may be potentially useful in identifying patients who may benefit from specific immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19 disease, particularly interleukin-6. It is however noteworthy that absolute values of a number of identified biomarkers were either appropriately elevated or within the normal range. This implies that these immunomodulatory treatments may be of limited benefit.Funding: National Institute for Health Research UCLH Biomedical Research Centre (BRC756/HI/MS/101440) and the UCL Coronavirus Response Fund.Declaration of Interests: MeS reports grants and advisory board fees from NewB, grants from the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Critical Pressure, Apollo Therapeutics, advisory board and speaker fees (paid to his institution) from Amormed, Biotest, GE, Baxter, Roche, and Bayer, and honorarium for chairing a data monitoring and safety committee from Shionogi. All other authors have nothing to declare. Ethics Approval Statement: Ethical approval was received from the London-Westminster Research Ethics Committee, the Health Research Authority and Health and Care Research Wales (HCRW) on 2nd July 2020 (REC reference 20/HRA/2505, IRAS ID 284088). The SAFER study protocol was approved by the NHS Health Research Authority (ref 20/SC/0147) on 26 March 2020. Ethical oversight was provided by the South- Central Berkshire Research Ethics Committee.

3.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(11): 1209-1216, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to the describe indications, management, complications and outcomes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in COVID-19 critically ill patients. To contextualize these findings, comparisons were made against 36 non-COVID-19 consecutive patients requiring RRT on ICU. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single center observational cohort study of patients requiring acute RRT between 1st March and 30th June 2020. Comparison was made against those receiving RRT in the pre-COVID-19 period from January 2019 to February 2020. RESULTS: Of 154 COVID-19 patients, 47 (30.5%) received continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF), all of whom required mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. The requirement for RRT was related to fluid balance rather than azotemia. Compared to 36 non-COVID-19 patients, those with COVID-19 were younger (P=0.016) with a lower serum creatinine on hospital admission (P=0.049), and lesser degrees of metabolic acidosis (P<0.001) and lactatemia (P<0.001) before initiation of RRT. In addition, the duration of RRT requirement was longer (P<0.001). Despite lower CVVHF exchange rates with higher serum creatinine levels following RRT initiation in the COVID-19 patients, metabolic abnormalities were corrected. Hospital mortality was 60% among COVID-19 patients requiring RRT, compared to 67% in non-COVID-19 patients (P=0.508), and renal recovery among survivors without pre-existing CKD was similar (P=0.231). CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for RRT in COVID-19 patients was primarily related to fluid balance. Using lower CVVHF exchange rates was effective to correct metabolic abnormalities. Renal recovery occurred in all but one patient by 60 days in the 40% of patients who survived.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(10): 1171-1172, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453696
7.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 29(6): 642-644, 2021 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381009

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have demonstrated mortality benefits from corticosteroid use in COVID-19 patients requiring respiratory support. However, clinical practice may warrant the use of corticosteroids outside the context of a clinical trial. Such data are rarely, if ever, reported. We explored the use of corticosteroids for adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) indications in patients with non-COVID ARDS. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2018 and March 2020. KEY FINDINGS: Of the 91 patients with ARDS identified, 80% were treated with a corticosteroid during their ICU admission. Of these, 73 (82%) had corticosteroids administered for reasons other than ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid use for non-ARDS indications is commonplace in ARDS patients in our ICU. The use of corticosteroids outside a randomisation process in randomised clinical trials may be more common than appreciated and needs to be routinely reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(6): 834-844, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibodies, particularly those preventing interaction between the viral spike receptor-binding domain and the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, may prevent viral entry into host cells and disease progression. METHODS: We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis, trial sequential analysis (TSA), and meta-regression of RCTs to evaluate the benefit of convalescent plasma for COVID-19. The primary outcome was 28-30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes included need for mechanical ventilation and ICU admission. Data sources were PubMed, Embase, MedRxiv, and the Cochrane library on July 2, 2021. RESULTS: We identified 17 RCTs that recruited 15 587 patients with 8027 (51.5%) allocated to receive convalescent plasma. Convalescent plasma use was not associated with a mortality benefit (24.7% vs 25.5%; odds ratio [OR]=0.94 [0.85-1.04]; P=0.23; I2=4%; TSA adjusted confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.05), or reduction in need for mechanical ventilation (15.7% vs 15.4%; OR=1.01 [0.92-1.11]; P=0.82; I2=0%; TSA adjusted CI, 0.91-1.13), or ICU admission (22.4% vs 16.7%; OR=0.80 [0.21-3.09]; P=0.75; I2=63%; TSA adjusted CI, 0.0-196.05). Meta-regression did not reveal association with titre of convalescent plasma, timing of administration, or risk of death and treatment effect (P>0.05). Risk of bias was high in most studies. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, there was no clear mortality benefit associated with convalescent plasma treatment. In patients with mild disease, convalescent plasma did not prevent either the need for mechanical ventilation or ICU admission. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42021234201 (PROSPERO).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Regression Analysis , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Treatment Outcome
9.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(8): e0488, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain disease severity in coronavirus disease 2019. Therapeutic approaches need to be underpinned by sound biological rationale. We evaluated whether serum levels of a range of proposed coronavirus disease 2019 therapeutic targets discriminated between patients with mild or severe disease. DESIGN: A search of ClinicalTrials.gov identified coronavirus disease 2019 immunological drug targets. We subsequently conducted a retrospective observational cohort study investigating the association of serum biomarkers within the first 5 days of hospital admission relating to putative therapeutic biomarkers with illness severity and outcome. SETTING: University College London, a tertiary academic medical center in the United Kingdom. PATIENTS: Patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eighty-six patients were recruited, 44 (51%) with mild disease and 42 (49%) with severe disease. We measured levels of 10 cytokines/signaling proteins related to the most common therapeutic targets (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-α2a, interferon-ß, interferon-γ, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-6, interleukin-7, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α), immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against either coronavirus disease 2019 spike protein or nucleocapsid protein, and neutralization titers of antibodies. Four-hundred seventy-seven randomized trials, including 168 different therapies against 83 different pathways, were identified. Six of the 10 markers (interleukin-6, interleukin-7, interleukin-8, interferon-α2a, interferon-ß, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) discriminated between patients with mild and severe disease, although most were similar or only modestly raised above that seen in healthy volunteers. A similar proportion of patients with mild or severe disease had detectable spike protein or nucleocapsid protein immunoglobulin G antibodies with equivalent levels between groups. Neutralization titers were higher among patients with severe disease. CONCLUSIONS: Some therapeutic and prognostic biomarkers may be useful in identifying coronavirus disease 2019 patients who may benefit from specific immunomodulatory therapies, particularly interleukin-6. However, biomarker absolute values often did not discriminate between patients with mild and severe disease or death, implying that these immunomodulatory treatments may be of limited benefit.

10.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):27-27, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1339001

ABSTRACT

IntroductionSevere COVID-19 disease is associated with a hyperinflammatory, pro-thrombotic state and a high mortality. A thrombotic phenotype rather than a coagulopathy is suggested and we undertook plasma exchange to determine its effects on organ function and thrombo-inflammatory markers.MethodsPlasma exchange was carried out in seven critically ill adults with severe COVID-19 respiratory failure (PaO2:FiO2 ratio <200 mmHg) requiring invasive or non-invasive ventilatory support and elevated thrombo-inflammatory markers (LDH>800 IU/L and D dimer>1000 µg/L (or doubling from baseline). Patients received a daily single volume 3 litre plasma exchange for a minimum of five days. No other immunomodulatory medications were initiated during this period. Effects on organ function, thrombo-inflammatory markers and complications were monitored. Seven patients matched for age and baseline biochemistry were a comparator group.ResultsCoagulation screening revealed no evidence of coagulopathy. However, von Willebrand Factor (VWF) activity, antigen and VWF antigen:ADAMTS13 ratio, Factor VIII and D-dimers were all elevated. Following five days of plasma exchange, plasma levels of all the above, and ferritin levels, were significantly reduced (p<0.05, Figure 1) while lymphocyte count normalized (p<0.05). The PaO2:FiO2 ratio increased from a median(IQR) of 11.6 (10.8- 19.7) kPa to 18.1 (16.0-25.9) kPa (p<0.05). Similar improvements were not observed in controls. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred among 5 patients in the control arm but not in patients who underwent plasma exchange.ConclusionPlasma exchange was associated with an improvement in oxygenation, decreased incidence of AKI, normalisation of lymphocytes and reduction in circulating thrombo-inflammatory markers including D-Dimer and VWF Ag:ADAMTS13 ratio.

11.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(11): 1209-1216, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to the describe indications, management, complications and outcomes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in COVID-19 critically ill patients. To contextualize these findings, comparisons were made against 36 non-COVID-19 consecutive patients requiring RRT on ICU. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single center observational cohort study of patients requiring acute RRT between 1st March and 30th June 2020. Comparison was made against those receiving RRT in the pre-COVID-19 period from January 2019 to February 2020. RESULTS: Of 154 COVID-19 patients, 47 (30.5%) received continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF), all of whom required mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. The requirement for RRT was related to fluid balance rather than azotemia. Compared to 36 non-COVID-19 patients, those with COVID-19 were younger (P=0.016) with a lower serum creatinine on hospital admission (P=0.049), and lesser degrees of metabolic acidosis (P<0.001) and lactatemia (P<0.001) before initiation of RRT. In addition, the duration of RRT requirement was longer (P<0.001). Despite lower CVVHF exchange rates with higher serum creatinine levels following RRT initiation in the COVID-19 patients, metabolic abnormalities were corrected. Hospital mortality was 60% among COVID-19 patients requiring RRT, compared to 67% in non-COVID-19 patients (P=0.508), and renal recovery among survivors without pre-existing CKD was similar (P=0.231). CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for RRT in COVID-19 patients was primarily related to fluid balance. Using lower CVVHF exchange rates was effective to correct metabolic abnormalities. Renal recovery occurred in all but one patient by 60 days in the 40% of patients who survived.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(6): 641-652, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237486

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels discriminate between patients with mild and severe COVID-19, making IL-6 inhibition an attractive therapeutic strategy. We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis, trial sequential analysis (TSA), and meta-regression of randomized-controlled trials to ascertain the benefit of IL-6 blockade with tocilizumab for COVID-19. METHODS: We included randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) allocating patients with COVID-19 to tocilizumab. Our control group included standard care or placebo. Trials co-administering other pharmacological interventions for COVID-19 were not excluded. Primary outcome was 28-30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes included progression-to-severe disease defined as need for mechanical ventilation, intensive-care unit (ICU) admission, or a composite. RESULTS: We identified 10 RCTs using tocilizumab, 9 of which reported primary outcome data (mortality), recruiting 6493 patients with 3358 (52.2%) allocated to tocilizumab. Tocilizumab may be associated with an improvement in mortality (24.4% vs. 29.0%; OR 0.87 [0.74-1.01]; p = 0.07; I2 = 10%; TSA adjusted CI 0.66-1.14). Meta-regression suggested a relationship between treatment effect and mortality risk, with benefit at higher levels of risk (logOR vs %risk beta = -0.018 [-0.037 to -0.002]; p = 0.07). Tocilizumab did reduce the need for mechanical ventilation and was associated with a benefit in the composite secondary outcome but did not reduce ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: For hospitalized COVID-19 patients, there is some evidence that tocilizumab use may be associated with a short-term mortality benefit, but further high-quality data are required. Its benefits may also lie in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
15.
EJHaem ; 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950770

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease is a hyperinflammatory, pro-thrombotic state. We undertook plasma exchange (PEX) to determine its effects on organ function and thrombo-inflammatory markers. Seven critically ill adults with severe COVID-19 respiratory failure (PaO2:FiO2 ratio < 200 mm Hg) requiring invasive or noninvasive ventilatory support and elevated thrombo-inflammatory markers (LDH >800 IU/L and D-dimer >1000 µg/L (or doubling from baseline) received PEX, daily, for a minimum of 5 days. No other immunomodulatory medications were initiated during this period. Seven patients matched for age and baseline biochemistry were a comparator group. Coagulation screening revealed no evidence of coagulopathy. However, von Willebrand Factor (VWF) activity, antigen and VWF antigen: ADAMTS13 ratio, Factor VIII and D-dimers were all elevated. Following 5 days of PEX, plasma levels of all the above, and ferritin levels, were significantly reduced (P < .05) while lymphocyte counts normalized (P < .05). The PaO2:FiO2 ratio increased from a median interquartile range (IQR) of 11.6 (10.8-19.7) kPa to 18.1 (16.0-25.9) kPa (P < .05). Similar improvements were not observed in controls. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred among five patients in the control arm but not in patients receiving PEX. PEX improved oxygenation, decreased the incidence of AKI, normalized lymphocyte counts and reduced circulating thrombo-inflammatory markers including D-Dimer and VWF Ag:ADAMTS13 ratio.

16.
J Crit Care ; 62: 46-48, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939047

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 ARDS have distinct physiological and immunological phenotypes compared to patients with non-COVID ARDS. Patients with COVID-19 ARDS (n = 32) had a significant improvement in PaO2: FiO2 ratio (p = 0.046) following low-dose steroid treatment, unlike patients with non-COVID ARDS (n = 16) (p = 0.529). Patients with COVID-19 ARDS had a greater fall in CRP compared to patients with non-COVID ARDS, albeit not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Our novel findings highlight differences in the underlying physiological and immunological phenotypes between COVID-19 and non-COVID ARDS, with implications for future ARDS studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/drug effects , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , London/epidemiology , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Respiratory Mechanics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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