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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315920

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are prioritised for COVID-19 vaccination. Analysing their vaccination preferences is crucial to understand suboptimal uptake and identify levers to increase acceptance among those hesitating.Methods: We administered an online single-profile discrete choice experiment among a snowballing sample of French HCWs, recruited December 2020 through January 2021. Respondents in three random blocks chose between accepting or rejecting COVID-19 vaccination across eight hypothetical scenarios. Vaccine eagerness was derived from decision certainty.Results: Among 4346 participants, 61·1% made uniform decisions, including 17·2% always refusing vaccination across all scenarios (serial non-demanders). Among 1691 respondents making variable decisions, a strong negative impact on acceptance was observed with 50% vaccine efficacy (compared to 90% efficacy: odds ratio 0·05, 95%-CI 0.04-0.06), and the mention of a positive benefit-risk balance (compared to absence of severe and frequent side effects: OR 0·40, 0·34-0·46. The highest positive impact was the prospect of safely meeting older people and contributing to epidemic control (compared to no indirect protection: OR 4·10, 3·49-4·82 and 2·87, 2·34-3·50, respectively. Predicted acceptance was 93·8% for optimized communication on mRNA vaccines and 16·0% for vector-based vaccines recommended to ≥55-year-old persons. Vaccine eagerness among serial non-demanders slightly but significantly increased with the prospect of safely meeting older people and epidemic control;and reduced with lower vaccine efficacy.Discussion: Vaccine promotion towards HCWs who hesitate or refuse vaccination, should avoid the notion of benefit-risk balance, while indirect protection effects with individual utility can lever acceptance. Vaccines with limited efficacy will unlikely achieve high uptake.Funding: This study was conducted with financial support from French Public Health Agency (SantéPublique France).Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The study protocol was approved by the IRB of CHU St Etienne (N° IRBN1092021/CHUSTE ) and the database was registered by EHESP French School of Public Health according to the GRDP regulation. Because the data collection was observational, collected no sensitive and only self-declared biomedical information, no informed consent was required. Participants visiting the study website saw the complete study information and agreed to study participation before starting the questionnaire. Study participation was anonymous without any risk of indirect identification.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524233

ABSTRACT

It can be assumed that higher SARS-CoV-2 infection risk is associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination intentions, although evidence is scarce. In this large and representative survey of 6007 adults aged 18-64 years and residing in France, 8.1% (95% CI, 7.5-8.8) reported a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in December 2020, with regional variations according to an East-West gradient (p < 0.0001). In participants without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was substantial, including 41.3% (95% CI, 39.8-42.8) outright refusal of COVID-19 vaccination. Taking into account five characteristics of the first approved vaccines (efficacy, duration of immunity, safety, country of the vaccine manufacturer, and place of administration) as well as the initial setting of the mass vaccination campaign in France, COVID-19 vaccine acceptance would reach 43.6% (95% CI, 43.0-44.1) at best among working-age adults without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was primarily driven by vaccine characteristics, sociodemographic and attitudinal factors. Considering the region of residency as a proxy of the likelihood of getting infected, our study findings do not support the assumption that SARS-CoV-2 infection risk is associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e055148, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse preferences around promotion of COVID-19 vaccination among workers in the healthcare and welfare sector in Fance at the start of the vaccination campaign. DESIGN: Single-profile discrete-choice experiment. Respondents in three random blocks chose between accepting or rejecting eight hypothetical COVID-19 vaccination scenarios. SETTING: 4346 healthcare and welfare sector workers in France, recruited through nation-wide snowball sampling, December 2020 to January 2021. OUTCOME: The primary outcomes were the effects of attributes' levels on hypothetical acceptance, expressed as ORs relative to the reference level. The secondary outcome was vaccine eagerness as certainty of decision, ranging from -10 to +10. RESULTS: Among all participants, 61.1% made uniform decisions, including 17.2% always refusing vaccination across all scenarios (serial non-demanders). Among 1691 respondents making variable decisions, a strong negative impact on acceptance was observed with 50% vaccine efficacy (compared with 90% efficacy: OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.06) and the mention of a positive benefit-risk balance (compared with absence of severe and frequent side effects: OR 0.40, 0.34 to 0.46). The highest positive impact was the prospect of safely meeting older people and contributing to epidemic control (compared with no indirect protection: OR 4.10, 3.49 to 4.82 and 2.87, 2.34 to 3.50, respectively). Predicted acceptance was 93.8% for optimised communication on messenger RNA vaccines and 16.0% for vector-based vaccines recommended to ≥55-year-old persons. Vaccine eagerness among serial non-demanders slightly but significantly increased with the prospect of safely meeting older people and epidemic control and reduced with lower vaccine efficacy. DISCUSSION: Vaccine promotion towards healthcare and welfare sector workers who hesitate or refuse vaccination should avoid the notion of benefit-risk balance, while collective benefit communication with personal utility can lever acceptance. Vaccines with limited efficacy will unlikely achieve high uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , France , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048025, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338869

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Describe demographical, social and psychological correlates of willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. SETTING: Series of online surveys undertaken between March and October 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 25 separate national samples (matched to country population by age and sex) in 12 different countries were recruited through online panel providers (n=25 334). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Reported willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Reported willingness to receive a vaccine varied widely across samples, ranging from 63% to 88%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses reveal sex (female OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.64), trust in medical and scientific experts (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.34) and worry about the COVID-19 virus (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.41 to 1.53) as the strongest correlates of stated vaccine acceptance considering pooled data and the most consistent correlates across countries. In a subset of UK samples, we show that these effects are robust after controlling for attitudes towards vaccination in general. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the burden of trust largely rests on the shoulders of the scientific and medical community, with implications for how future COVID-19 vaccination information should be communicated to maximise uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(7): e27768, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries have implemented mobile apps in an attempt to trace close contacts of patients with COVID-19 and, in turn, reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, the effectiveness of this approach depends on the adherence of a large segment of the population. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of a COVID-19 contact tracing mobile app among the French population and to investigate the barriers to its use. METHODS: The Health Literacy Survey 2019 questioned 1003 people in France during the COVID-19 pandemic on the basis of quota sampling. The survey collected sociodemographic characteristics and health literacy data, as well as information on participants' communication with caregivers, trust in institutions, and COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors. The acceptability of a mobile app for contact tracing was measured by a single question, the responses to which were grouped into three modalities: app-supporting, app-willing, and app-reluctant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with the acceptability of a mobile app during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Only 19.2% (193/1003) of all participants were app-supporting, whereas half of them (504/1003, 50.3%) were reluctant. The factors associated with willingness or support toward the contact tracing app included lower financial deprivation (app-willing: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8, 95% CI 0.69-0.93; app-supporting: aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.58-0.84) and higher perceived usefulness of using a mobile app to send completed health questionnaires to doctors (app-willing: aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.70-3.26; app-supporting: aOR 3.1, 95% CI 2.04-4.82). Furthermore, the likelihood of supporting the mobile app increased with age over 60 years (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.13-3.22), trust in political representatives (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.72-4.23), feeling concerned about the pandemic situation (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.47-3.32), and knowledge about the transmission of COVID-19 (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.39-2.96). CONCLUSIONS: The most socioeconomically precarious people, who are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are also the most reluctant to using a contact tracing mobile app. Therefore, optimal adherence can only be effective with a targeted discourse on public health benefits to adopt such an app, which should be combined with a reduction in inequalities by acting on structural determinants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Contact Tracing , France/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(4): e210-e221, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Opinion polls on vaccination intentions suggest that COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is increasing worldwide; however, the usefulness of opinion polls to prepare mass vaccination campaigns for specific new vaccines and to estimate acceptance in a country's population is limited. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of vaccine characteristics, information on herd immunity, and general practitioner (GP) recommendation on vaccine hesitancy in a representative working-age population in France. METHODS: In this survey experiment, adults aged 18-64 years residing in France, with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, were randomly selected from an online survey research panel in July, 2020, stratified by gender, age, education, household size, and region and area of residence to be representative of the French population. Participants completed an online questionnaire on their background and vaccination behaviour-related variables (including past vaccine compliance, risk factors for severe COVID-19, and COVID-19 perceptions and experience), and were then randomly assigned according to a full factorial design to one of three groups to receive differing information on herd immunity (>50% of adults aged 18-64 years must be immunised [either by vaccination or infection]; >50% of adults must be immunised [either by vaccination or infection]; or no information on herd immunity) and to one of two groups regarding GP recommendation of vaccination (GP recommends vaccination or expresses no opinion). Participants then completed a series of eight discrete choice tasks designed to assess vaccine acceptance or refusal based on hypothetical vaccine characteristics (efficacy [50%, 80%, 90%, or 100%], risk of serious side-effects [1 in 10 000 or 1 in 100 000], location of manufacture [EU, USA, or China], and place of administration [GP practice, local pharmacy, or mass vaccination centre]). Responses were analysed with a two-part model to disentangle outright vaccine refusal (irrespective of vaccine characteristics, defined as opting for no vaccination in all eight tasks) from vaccine hesitancy (acceptance depending on vaccine characteristics). FINDINGS: Survey responses were collected from 1942 working-age adults, of whom 560 (28·8%) opted for no vaccination in all eight tasks (outright vaccine refusal) and 1382 (71·2%) did not. In our model, outright vaccine refusal and vaccine hesitancy were both significantly associated with female gender, age (with an inverted U-shaped relationship), lower educational level, poor compliance with recommended vaccinations in the past, and no report of specified chronic conditions (ie, no hypertension [for vaccine hesitancy] or no chronic conditions other than hypertension [for outright vaccine refusal]). Outright vaccine refusal was also associated with a lower perceived severity of COVID-19, whereas vaccine hesitancy was lower when herd immunity benefits were communicated and in working versus non-working individuals, and those with experience of COVID-19 (had symptoms or knew someone with COVID-19). For a mass vaccination campaign involving mass vaccination centres and communication of herd immunity benefits, our model predicted outright vaccine refusal in 29·4% (95% CI 28·6-30·2) of the French working-age population. Predicted hesitancy was highest for vaccines manufactured in China with 50% efficacy and a 1 in 10 000 risk of serious side-effects (vaccine acceptance 27·4% [26·8-28·0]), and lowest for a vaccine manufactured in the EU with 90% efficacy and a 1 in 100 000 risk of serious side-effects (vaccine acceptance 61·3% [60·5-62·1]). INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance depends on the characteristics of new vaccines and the national vaccination strategy, among various other factors, in the working-age population in France. FUNDING: French Public Health Agency (Santé Publique France).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(5): 1076-1083, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In many countries, lockdown measures were implemented to curb the COVID-19 pandemic. This situation may have an impact on mental health, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. The aim of this research report is therefore to describe changes in tobacco and alcohol consumption in the general French population during the first 2 weeks of lockdown and identify any associated factors. METHODS: Self-reported changes in smoking and alcohol consumption following the lockdown implemented in France on 17 March 2020 were collected from 2003 respondents aged 18 years and older in an online cross-sectional survey carried out from 30 March to 1 April 2020. Anxiety and depression levels were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: Among current smokers, 26.7% reported an increase in their tobacco consumption since lockdown and 18.6% reported a decrease, while it remained stable for 54.7%. The increase in tobacco consumption was associated with an age of 18-34 years, a high level of education, and anxiety. Among alcohol drinkers, 10.7% reported an increase in their alcohol consumption since lockdown and 24.4% reported a decrease, while it remained stable for 64.8%. The increase in alcohol consumption was associated with an age of 18-49 years, living in cities of more than 100 000 inhabitants, a high socio-professional category, and a depressive mood. CONCLUSIONS: The national lockdown implemented in France during the COVID-19 pandemic influenced tobacco and alcohol consumption in different ways according to sociodemographic group and mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Smoking , Young Adult
8.
Can J Public Health ; 111(6): 995-999, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080466

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic, the world's media have publicized preliminary findings suggesting that tobacco use is protective against COVID-19. An ad hoc multidisciplinary group was created to address the major public health implications of this messaging. Key messages of this commentary are as follows: 1) The COVID-19 crisis may increase tobacco consumption and decrease access to healthcare. As a result, smoking-related morbidity and mortality could increase in the coming months and years; 2) Smoking and tobacco-related diseases are prognostic factors for severe COVID-19; and 3) In theory, smokers may be at lower risk of COVID-19 infection because of having fewer social contacts. In conclusion, tobacco control is a greater challenge than ever in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public decision-makers must be vigilant in ensuring that public health practices are consistent and compliant with the principles of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In addition, researchers and the media have a responsibility to be cautious in communicating preliminary results that may promote non-evidence-based research, self-destructive individual behaviours, and commercial agendas.


RéSUMé: Pendant la pandémie, des résultats préliminaires sur l'effet protecteur du tabac sur la COVID-19 ont été largement diffusés dans le monde entier. Dans ce contexte, et en raison des questions de santé publique liées à ce sujet, un groupe multidisciplinaire ad hoc a été créé en réponse aux demandes des institutions de santé publique. Les messages clés de ce commentaire sont les suivants : 1) La crise de la COVID-19 pourrait entraîner une augmentation de la consommation de tabac et une diminution de l'accès aux soins. En conséquence, la morbidité et la mortalité liées au tabagisme pourraient augmenter dans les mois et les années à venir; 2) Le tabagisme et les maladies liées au tabac sont des facteurs pronostiques de formes graves de la COVID-19; et 3) Hypothétiquement, les fumeurs, notamment en réduisant la fréquence et la durée des contacts sociaux, pourraient être moins susceptibles d'être contaminés. En conclusion, même pendant et malgré la crise sanitaire due à la pandémie de la COVID-19, la lutte contre le tabagisme reste plus que jamais un défi. Les décideurs publics doivent être particulièrement vigilants pour assurer la cohérence des pratiques publiques, y compris le respect des principes de la Convention-cadre de l'OMS pour la lutte antitabac. Il incombe également aux chercheurs et aux médias de communiquer avec prudence des résultats préliminaires susceptibles de générer des comportements individuels contre-productifs et d'être instrumentalisés à des fins commerciales.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Smoking/adverse effects , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Humans , Morbidity , Pandemics , Smoking/mortality , Tobacco , Tobacco Use/mortality
9.
Front Psychol ; 11: 584500, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983693

ABSTRACT

In absence of effective pharmaceutical treatments, the individual's compliance with a series of behavioral recommendations provided by the public health authorities play a critical role in the control and prevention of SARS-CoV2 infection. However, we still do not know much about the rate and determinants of adoption of the recommended health behaviors. This paper examines the compliance with the main behavioral recommendations, and compares sociocultural, psychosocial, and social cognitive explanations for its variation in the French population. Based on the current literature, these 3 categories of factors were identified as potential determinants of individual differences in the health preventive behaviors. The data used for these analyses are drawn from 2 cross-sectional studies (N = 2,000 in survey 1 and 2,003 in survey 2) conducted after the lockdown and before the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in France. The participants were drawn from a larger internet consumer panel where recruitment was stratified to generate a socio-demographically representative sample of the French adult population. Overall, the results show a very high rate of compliance with the behavioral recommendations among the participants. A hierarchical regression analysis was then performed to assess the potential explanatory power of these approaches in complying with these recommendations by successively entering sociocultural factors, psychosocial factors, social cognitive factors in the model. Only the inclusion of the cognitive variables substantially increased the explained variance of the self-reported adoption of preventive behaviors (R 2 change = 23% in survey 1 and 2), providing better support for the social cognitive than the sociocultural and psychosocial explanations.

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